the stomach. Reducing, esophageal wall is pushed in food com
stomach. It so happened that the esophageal diseases are often paid very
little attention. Mountain Written articles about the stomach, intestines, but somehow
side bypass esophagus, only briefly mentioning occasionally on "unclear" achalasia and esophagitis.
Why is this happening? Is this one of the most persistent human body organs?
Not at all. Diseases of the esophagus are quite a few. And often people find themselves in
symptoms of a disease of the esophagus, referred it to the heart, stomach, spine
The purpose of this article - do not send everyone to search at "new sores".
A brief talk about the most common diseases of the esophagus. AND
We will start with the most frequently mentioned achalasia.
What is achalasia
Pain and heaviness in the chest, appearing shortly after a meal. Fullness
in the epigastric region. Regurgitation of food. Often drinking during the meal, the person
It facilitates the passage of food. At the same time the need to drink is often referred to "habits from childhood".
So, achalasia ...
Synonyms: cardiospasm, megaezofagus (a significant increase in size of the esophagus, occurs as a malformation or by a pathological process). In this disease there is non-disclosure (insufficient disclosure) lower
esophageal sphincter causing food stagnates in the esophagus without penetrating
in the stomach.
Cause of the disease is unknown. But there are indications of a violation of the nervous apparatus
esophagus (its so-called "immaturity").
For esophageal achalasia following clinical manifestations are characterized by:
Dysphagia - a violation of passage of food through the esophagus, its features -
there is impermanent, often triggered by foods containing large
the amount of fiber may be paradoxical (solid food goes better
- Regurgitation - regurgitation of food from the esophagus into the mouth
- Fullness in the epigastrium and behind the sternum
- chest pain
To diagnose the disease using X-rays, manometry, fibroezofagoskopiyu.
In the treatment should avoid physical exertion and stress. Recommended
frequent, smaller meals up to 6 times per day.
Medicines prescribed by a doctor. Used nitrates, anticholinergics,
calcium antagonists, sedatives, antacids. With the ineffectiveness of shows
kardiodilyatatsiya - expansion of the lumen of the esophagus special balloon.
What is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or reflux esophagitis
It is a chronic disease caused by retrograde (reverse) receipt
food from the stomach into the esophagus. Such a condition is normal and, in the pathology occurs more than 50 episodes
gastroesophageal reflux disease (Ie more than 50 times the food back into the esophagus from the stomach).
Causes. Gastroesophageal reflux disease develops due to the weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter
(With frequent use of caffeine-rich foods, hot spices, alcohol,
peppermint, lesions of the vagus nerve, while smoking, pregnancy), when
some diseases (systemic sclerosis, diaphragmatic hernia, flatulence,
peptic ulcer, cholecystitis, etc.).
Symptoms are divided into esophageal and vnepischevodnye.
For esophageal symptoms include:
- Dysphagia - a violation of passage of food through the esophagus
- Sensation of a lump in the chest
- Odynophagia - pain during the passage of food through the esophagus
- Epigastric pain ( "pit of the stomach") And esophagus
- Hiccups, vomiting
The group vnepischevodnyh symptoms include frequent diseases of the bronchi
and lungs, upper respiratory tract, anemia, heart pain, frequent stomatitis, predisposition
Diagnostics. In gastroesophageal reflux disease, except
clinical data, use a pressure gauge, esophagogastroduodenoscopy
(Swallowing all the unloved "hose"), Esophageal pH meter (normal
5.5-7.5, below 4.0) for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Treatment. The main thing in treatment - normalization of diet. Recommended
there 3-4 times a day, netoropyas, chewing food thoroughly. From diet good
would eliminate overeating, snacking, rich in fat, caffeinated products
Medications must be taken under medical supervision during exacerbation of the disease,
when a simple normalization of the power fails. Assign antacids (Maalox,
Aluminium phosphate gel), blockers H2-histamine receptors (ranitidine, famotidine), broth
flaxseed, Reglan, cisapride, and others. With the ineffectiveness spend antireflux
What is a hiatal hernia
As you know, in normal diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the chest. This kind of
a barrier having a plurality of apertures through which the blood vessels, the esophagus,
nerves, etc. of the abdominal thoracic cavity.
Hiatal hernia - a hernia from which visual way
not determined. At the same time there is a shift of the esophagus (and sometimes part
stomach, bowel loops) through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm from the abdominal in
It occurs in 0.5% of the adult population, 50% are asymptomatic.
Hiatal hernia occurs due to stretching of the connective tissue membrane that
normally hermetically separates the chest cavity from the abdominal.
Causes hiatal hernia:
- congenital weakness of connective tissue structures
- increased intra-abdominal pressure
- esophagus and gastrointestinal tract disease, which occurs due to the displacement of the esophagus
Manifestations. Approximately 50% of cases of hiatal hernia can
asymptomatic. The symptoms of hiatal hernia
identical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, but often
in the foreground may be symptoms that are typical for heart disease
(Pain in the heart, arrhythmias).
Features of the pain associated with hiatal hernia:
- often occur after meals, during exercise, leaning forward in a horizontal Assumption
- disappear after regurgitation, hiccups, vomiting, upright
- Pain is most often mild, dull, worse when bending forward
Methods of diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease are identical. With the ineffectiveness of conservative
therapy, surgical treatment is used.
When a hiatal hernia is not suitable for work related to the tilt of the body and stress
abdominals. Sleep should be raised with headboard (2-3 pads), mainly
on the right side.
What is chronic esophagitis
Another disease of the esophagus, which many perceive as quite harmless "sore"Which "is almost all" and always
she goes" - Chronic esophagitis. Often credited with its manifestations
diseases of the stomach. A burning sensation behind the breastbone when sin immediately on the plague (and with
age, heart or fashionable low back pain).
In some diseases of the stomach, however, esophagitis may develop, but it
It is much less common than people think.
Chronic esophagitis - inflammation of the esophageal mucosa length
more than 6 months.
Inflammation of up to 3 months - acute esophagitis, 3-6 months - sub-acute esophagitis.
Esophagitis can occur as a result of smoking, drinking, taking a hot (fans
hot tea, coffee!), roughage. As a result of occupational hazards (couples
acids, alkalis, etc..), foreign bodies, trauma, allergic reactions,
polyhypovitaminosis, iron deficiency.
There are also specific esophagitis - in syphilis, tuberculosis, fungal
and other diseases.
The disease is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Dysphagia - a violation of passage of food through the esophagus
- Chest pain, they feature - the connection with food intake, and dysphagia
- Belching, vomiting mucus, food particles
- Regurgitation - vomiting just eaten food (esophageal vomiting)
Diagnostics. In general, the analysis of the blood due to chronic bleeding
It can be a picture of iron deficiency anemia. Spend fluoroscopy, radiography
with contrast. But most often performed esophagoscopy - swallowing "hose".
a biopsy is performed to confirm the diagnosis (take "a piece of the shell"
esophagus for analysis). This is a painless procedure.
Treatment. When expressed pain, heartburn recommend starvation for 1-2 days.
Then appoint diets. Used cold drink.
In exacerbations of medicines prescribed by the doctor. The main task - to anesthetize (Novocain,
antispasmodics, in severe cases, morphine). Symptomatic therapy.
For prophylaxis can be treated with antibiotics.