It is known that the composition of the vaginal microfloraIt includes more than 30 species of microorganisms. The main share - 90-95% of all microorganisms - up lactobacilli. Others microorganisms, including pathogenic and conditionally constitute 5-10%. In the normal functioning of the body conditionally pathogenic microflora can not cause disease. Only under certain conditions, such as stress, decrease immunniteta, inflammatory diseases, opportunistic microbes cause disease. These are conditional pathogens and ureaplasma. That is, normally a small amount ureaplasmas may be present in the body.
Resistance to the effects of genital mutilationprovide a variety of physiological barriers infectious agents. The main factor of protection against exposure to pathogens is the normal microflora.
When disturbed ratio of various microorganisms, emerging infectious diseases.
Pathogens ureaplasmosis colonize the vagina of healthy women in 60% of cases.
At this rate, it affects sexually active women.
Ureaplasma can be transmitted only through sexualact with patients or carriers of pathogens ureaplasmosis. I especially want to emphasize that in the bath, pool, ureaplasmosis can be caught on the beach only in the event that you have in these places had sexual intercourse with a carrier ureaplasma.
The child can become infected by the mother during laborwhile passing through the birth canal. In very rare cases, a child becomes infected with ureaplasma in utero, that is, during pregnancy, yet most placenta protects him from these dangerous pathogens. Intrauterine infection of the baby most likely during the initial infection ureaplasma during pregnancy.
Caught in the genital tract orurethra, ureaplasma can be quiet, but may develop violent pathogenic activity. It all depends on the initial state of health infected person. In the worst case, ureaplasma begins to multiply rapidly and damaging everything that comes his way. ureaplasmosis arises. Men ureaplasma primarily affects the urethra and prostate, women - the vagina.
On average, from the time of infection until the firstdisease symptoms one month passes. But ureaplasmas can also cause inflammation of the uterus, appendages, lead to infertility. Availability ureaplasmas is a predisposing factor for the development of postpartum infectious complications, such as endometritis - inflammation of the uterus.
After 4 weeks after entering the ureaplasmasbody symptoms develop urethritis - inflammation of the urethra: there are a burning sensation and pain in the urethra during urination and appear mucus, often in the morning. If the infection occurred during oral sex, it develops a sore throat with all the usual for her symptoms. I especially want to emphasize that the above symptoms ureaplasmosis more common in men - in women the disease can generally does not manifest itself or be expressed stronger than usual, mucous secretions. But weakly manifested symptoms does not exclude its seriousness.
If the infected person does not start to be treated,after a few days the symptoms of urethritis go away, which often serves as a pretext for calm. But, unfortunately, ureaplasmosis does not end there. Infection usually settles in the wall of the urethra in the prostate in men and in the vagina and the uterus in women. From this point the disease is just waiting in the wings, that is, reduction of local immunity to manifest itself in full force. The reason for this may be hypothermia, considerable physical exertion, prolonged stress, colds or any inflammatory disease, etc.
Especially worth mentioning that during thepregnancy body's defenses (immune system) are reduced. As a result of such events in women develops coleitis (inflammation of the vagina), endometritis (inflammation of the wall of the uterus), some at least - cystitis (bladder infection) and pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney tissue). At this stage, the disease can be treated much more difficult, as already ureaplasmas securely "settled" in the body.
Colpitis appears whitish or mucousdischarge a larger than usual amount. Exactly ureaplasmosis may occur during pregnancy. Against the background of an increased amount of discharge is normal, as well as frequent during gestation baby vaginal candidiasis (thrush), these phenomena may be overlooked.
Nonpregnant endometrium manifests the samewhitish or copious mucous discharge, pain in the abdomen. In the presence of ureaplasma in pregnant these microorganisms can serve as a risk factor for postpartum endometritis.
Cystitis causes pain during urination, frequenturge to urinate. Pyelonephritis manifested by pain in the lumbar region, fever. Cystitis and pyelonephritis may occur both during pregnancy and after childbirth.
Ureaplasmas can cause infertility.
Often there are cases when, due to the lowvirulence pathogens on the one hand, and because of the good state of the immune system - with another, mycoplasma long time (up to several years) do not manifest themselves. This situation is called the carriage of infection, and it represents a significant risk. A person may not even be aware that he is hiding in the body ureaplasma, and that he is able to infect their partner.
Furthermore, even not giving itself felt,Ureaplasma creates a suitable background for the development of other diseases, and the man - the carrier ureaplasma becomes much more susceptible to any other infections, especially infections, sexually transmitted.
Ureaplasmosis may causespontaneous abortion at an early stage. The placenta protects the baby from infection, if a woman is infected before pregnancy, but 50% of children are infected during childbirth, passing through an infected mother's ancestral ways. In women with the disease becomes more severe and significant common form.
Ureaplasmosis first emerged duringpregnancy, when the placenta has not yet formed, can result in the first trimester miscarriage due to the formation of serious fetal malformations (nervous, cardiovascular and other systems).
In the second and third trimester of pregnancynew-onset disease, and had before pregnancy ureaplasmosis may cause a threat of termination of pregnancy, placental insufficiency - a condition in which the baby is not enough oxygen and nutrients.
In any case, the detection ureaplasmosis during pregnancy is not a reason for her interruption. Proper and timely treatment can help a woman to bear and give birth to a healthy baby.
Complete examination is necessary in all cases of suspected disease.
For accurate laboratory diagnosis ureaplasmosis today use a combination of several techniques, selects the physician:
- PCR (polymerase chain reaction that allowsto identify the DNA of the pathogen). PCR allows 5 hours to find out whether the ureaplasma material available, but does not allow to quantify the characteristics of the pathogen. It is not necessary for a quick check of the effectiveness of treatment, as the traces of the pathogen, which also gives a positive PCR result, remain in the body for 2-3 weeks. This method investigate discharge from the vagina, cervix, urethra.
- Serological method (antibody detection). Detection of antibodies to antigens (characteristic structures) ureaplasmas applied in determining the causes of infertility, miscarriage, inflammatory diseases in the postpartum period. For this study, it takes blood from a vein.
- Bacteriological (culture) method. Bacteriological ureaplasmosis diagnostic method is ureaplasmas cultivation on artificial nutrient medium. For the study was sampled from the urethral mucosa, vaginal fornix, cervical canal, it is investigated as a morning urine. Response is obtained within 48 hours.
Only by this method you can determine the number ofUreaplasma, which should be sufficient for the possibility of developing the disease. Bacteriological method allows to identify the pathogen resistance and sensitivity to antibiotics before their appointment. In addition, bacteriological method is tested and the effectiveness of the treatment.
A prerequisite for detecting ureaplasmosis is the treatment of both sexual partners. Sex during treatment must be restricted.
Upon detection of Ureaplasma in pregnancytreatment is carried out in any case, the beginning of his term depends on features of the course of pregnancy. If you experience these or other complications (threatened miscarriage, preeclampsia, exacerbation of chronic diseases, etc.), treatment is initiated when complications arise.
If pregnancy occurs safely, treatment is prescribed after the 30 th week, in order to ensure the absence of the pathogen in the birth canal at the time of birth of the baby.
For a long time the main means of treatmentureaplasmosis drugs were tetracycline. However, they require a fairly prolonged use, which increases the risk of side effects. According to many years of experience, Erythromycin is an affordable, effective and safe enough for the baby medication.
A promising drug macrolide relatively recently appeared in the domestic market, is Vilprafen.
Vilprafen causes far fewer sideeffects on the digestive tract than erythromycin. It has no damaging effect on the fetus does not cause fetal malformation. At the end of a course of antibiotic therapy course restore vaginal microflora special preparations.
Women control cure is carried out byBacteriological studies of smears from the genital tract in 7-8 days after treatment in 14-21 days or PCR. When it comes to the treatment outside of pregnancy, further research was carried out for 3 menstrual cycles, before menstruation or better within 1-2 days after its completion.
Men are considered to be cured if, within 1 month after treatment by different methods (microbiology, PCR) is not possible to identify a ureaplasma.
Previous infection does not cause persistent immunity, so if only one partner is treated, there may be cases of re-infection.