Medical abortion - is the removal of the ovum withwhile scraping the uterine wall. Medical abortion is performed on the stages of pregnancy up to 12 weeks. Optimal for his abortion time - 6-7 weeks. Abortion performed by a doctor in a hospital.
To penetrate into the uterine cavity is doneexpansion of its special channel expanders. To remove the ovum uterus scraped instrument - curette. Medical abortion is performed under general anesthesia. A few hours after the abortion the woman is under medical supervision. With a favorable postoperative period the patient on the same day is discharged home.
Despite its apparent simplicity, the medical abortionIt is one of the most complex gynecological operations. Inflammatory diseases, depletion of the functional layer of the uterus can lead to infertility, and if the pregnancy, there may be severe complications.
During abortion complication is probably ascervical injury, which occurs as a result of cervical incompetence - a condition in which the cervix does not perform its containment function. If the rate of the cervix during pregnancy remains closed, it is necessary to hold the ovum in the uterus, then the cervical incompetence, this function is impaired.
Cervix - a muscle formation whichIt can be damaged during surgical abortion tool. This forms a tear, and it leads to the fact that the cervix becomes functionally defective. In most cases these side effects occur when the first pregnancy ends in abortion, since the cervix in these cases is very narrow and poorly amenable to expand surgical instruments.
Cervical incompetence manifestedtermination of pregnancy, often in 16-18 weeks. At the same time there are bleeding from the genital tract, slight cramping pain in the abdomen, but often there is no pain. Then the fertilized egg comes out of the uterus, there is a miscarriage.
This complication can be prevented by knowingabout cervical inferiority. For this purpose the cervix sutured to hold it in the closed state. The trouble lies in the fact that cervical incompetence is often diagnosed when a miscarriage has occurred and adequate treatment is only possible in subsequent pregnancies. If the doctor has information about the presence of cervical injury during a previous abortion, it is timely conduct inspection of the cervix, appoint ultrasound in the critical period.
The reason for abortion after abortion can bechanges in hormonal regulation. Pregnancy - is a condition in which the body and all its systems are rebuilt to ensure normal growth and development of the fetus. When the artificial termination of pregnancy can disrupt the normal operation of the endocrine organs -. Pituitary gland, ovaries, etc. This will lead to the fact that during the next pregnancy, the fetus will not be provided with appropriate hormonal support. Typically, this translates into a lack of corpus luteum hormone - progesterone, which plays a key role in the preservation of pregnancy in the first trimester. This complication can be avoided by taking appropriate medicines that the doctor prescribe.
As a result, abortion is injured and becomes thinnerthe inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium, the same layer, which is attached to the fertilized egg. Status of the inner layer plays an important role in the proper formation of the placenta. In the presence of thinning regions of chronic inflammation, adhesions (connective tissue that forms as a result of inflammation in the uterus), the ovum is attached to the place on the wall of the uterus, where no such damage. Often these sites are located in the lower parts of the uterus, resulting in poor location of the placenta, placenta previa - the placenta covers at the same time out of the cervix.
It is also possible the attachment of the ovum is notuterus and cervix in - so-called cervical pregnancy. All these conditions may give rise to bleeding associated with placental abruption, and cervical pregnancy in general can be a cause for hysterectomies due to massive bleeding; a pregnancy can not bring to the end, and the neck of pregnancy the fetus is always removed.
When previa and placenta attaching low inpregnancy often have to carry out in-patient treatment, aimed at the continuation of the pregnancy; It increases the likelihood of cesarean delivery.
As noted, after the preceding abortionsan inner layer of the uterus can become defective, during the formation of the placenta defects may occur, which in turn leads to insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. This condition is called placental insufficiency. As a result, the fruit is lagging behind in the growth of the pregnancy, the birth of a child may underweight.
In this connection it is particularly important during pregnancykeep pace with the growth of the fetus. The doctor does so at each reception, measuring the dimensions of the abdomen, as well as during ultrasound. When the diagnosis of fetal growth retardation is carried out special treatment at home or in a hospital.
This serious complication is possible when a significantthinning of the uterine wall after a large number of abortions, or if in the course of an abortion performed uterine perforation - the formation of the through-hole. If at the time of abortion is a serious complication happened, the woman undergoes surgery, restoring the integrity of the uterine wall, or if the defect is minor, conducted observation and treatment without surgery. In any case, the connective tissue formed at the site of perforation. In contrast to the muscle it is little extensible, and can occur uterine rupture during pregnancy or in childbirth, while significantly suffer as the mother and baby. It is understood that the pregnant woman, having such a feature requires particularly careful observation.
It is a condition in which the bodywomen produced Rh antibodies to fetal red blood cells - red blood cells that carries oxygen. This complication can occur after abortion only in women with blood with a negative Rh factor, in that case, if the fetus was Rh positive. During abortion large number of Rh-positive fetal red blood cells can get into the mother's bloodstream, causing a large amount of antibodies. The resulting antibodies remain in the body of a woman, and can exert its deleterious effects on the fetus during the Rh positive fetus in subsequent pregnancies.
Currently, developed preventionoccurrence of Rh sensitization after abortion and childbirth. It includes the introduction of a special woman drug - anti-Rhesus immunoglobulin. This drug destroys Rh-positive fetal red blood cells remaining after abortion in maternal blood, thus not giving protivorezusnym produced maternal antibodies. Desirably, the drug was administered within 2 hours after the abortion, but it is permissible to delay 72 hours.
Note that Rh antigen system (i.e.is actually Rh) contained in the fetal blood from 7-8 weeks of pregnancy, that is, the formation of antibodies in the body possibly pregnant when the abortion was performed after 6 weeks of gestation, before the likelihood of Rh sensitization is absent.
What is dangerous for the presence of antibodies to the fetusa woman's body? Once in the bloodstream of the fetus, Rh antibodies destroy its red blood cells, causing anemia (decreased hemoglobin), disruption of vital organs and systems of the fetus (the disintegration of red blood cells leads to damage to the liver, kidney, fetal brain). This condition is called hemolytic disease. In the most severe cases, it ends with intrauterine fetal death at various stages of pregnancy, in milder cases of Rh-conflict manifests itself after the birth of newborn jaundice or anemia.
All pregnant women with Rh negative, andthe more - the pregnant women who have discovered antibodies that are specially registered in the antenatal clinic, they regularly donate blood in order to be able to determine whether produced during the current pregnancy, new antibodies. The studies (ultrasound, CTG, Doppler) allows you to monitor your baby. With an increase in the number of antibodies and serious condition of the fetus in utero blood transfusions possible (under ultrasound guidance through the abdominal wall of the mother get into the vein of the umbilical cord to the fetus and poured 20-50 ml of packed red blood cells). This operation improves the condition of the fetus and can prolong pregnancy.
Many of these complications can beprevent or at least minimize their negative consequences, if the doctor is aware of the presence of previous abortions. The doctor prescribe appropriate studies, medications to prevent complications. Therefore, in no case should not gloss over the fact of medical abortions.