What is psittacosis
Psittacosis (formerly known as "psittacosis") - an acute infectious
disease characterized by general intoxication, lesions
lung, nervous system, spleen and liver enlargement.
The causative agent - an obligate intracellular parasite
Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia belonging to the family. Outside the cell
host metabolic functions of the bacteria are minimized and
they are difficult to detect; they can be distinguished by infecting white
mice or chick embryos, and in tissue cultures. chlamydia
inactivated when heated above 70 ° C and under the action
disinfectants. In the external environment are stored up to 3 weeks.
The main mode of transmission - airborne dust and airborne.
The pathogen was detected in 140 kinds of domestic and wild birds; recent
set it apart from the feces and discharge from the nasal passages. chlamydia
fall feathers, feathers, eggs and various environmental objects.
It should be remembered that the epidemiological importance of different birds
is not the same; in nature are the main reservoir of the pathogen
waterfowl, and birds among commensal main danger
are pigeons (infected up to 50% of the population). Infection with
contact with a sick person is rare, as it highlights
few pathogens and its body of their virulent properties
weakened. Some authors suggest a possible epidemic
the risk of sheep, cows, dogs and cats; identified as spontaneous
contamination of certain species of rodents.
In the human pathogen penetrates mainly through
mucous membranes of the respiratory system (inhalation of infected
dust). Lesions of the upper respiratory tract with ornithosis available,
but in the bronchi, according to bronchoscopy revealed marked
inflammatory changes. Some patients in the mouths of the bronchi
there is a mucous plug, occlusive lumen that can
lead to the development of atelectasis. The pathogen multiplies in
epithelial (the outermost layer of the skin) cells and then enters into the blood, causing
development of general intoxication (poisoning), as well as the defeat of a number of organs (liver,
spleen, myocardium, brain). People with a good immune system infection
It may be asymptomatic (so called inapparent form). In
Most patients cleansing the body of the pathogen occurs in
Within a few weeks, but sometimes it can be saved in chlamydia
the body up to 8 years (chronic forms of ornithosis). When psittacosis
Immunity unstable, recurrent disease was observed after 1-2
of the year.
The symptoms of psittacosis
The incubation period usually lasts 8-12
days. Psittacosis can occur in typical (pneumonic) and
in atypical (meningopnevmoniya, meningitis, ornithosis without defeat
lungs) forms of varying severity. Pneumonic form of ornithosis
It begins with acute effects of intoxication (fever, chills,
headache, fatigue, myalgia, and others.). Symptoms of upper
respiratory tract were observed. In the early days there are also signs
defeat the lungs and pleura. Body temperature in most patients
above 39 ° C.
Against the background of general intoxication with 2-4-th day of illness
there are signs of respiratory lesions. There is a cough,
which can be either dry or with a viscous mucous sputum,
sometimes mucopurulent or streaked with blood. Half of the patients
marked pain in the chest, usually stabbing nature associated with
act of breathing. At the same time there are clinical signs and
pneumonia, which is localized mainly in the lower lung lobes.
and the lower right lobe is affected 2 times more often than the left. TO
the end of the 1st week of the majority (70%) patients showed an increase in
liver and spleen.
Signs of severe intoxication saved up
7-10-th day of illness, and then gradually begin to decrease; wherein
changes in the lungs and other organs are preserved. Body temperature
decreases usually politically, but after that the patient's state of health
a long time is not normal. In moderate and severe forms of ornithosis complete
restoration comes only through 2-2,5 months.
Chronic forms of ornithosis in recent years are rare.
Complications with psittacosis may be due to both chlamydia and
grew stratifying secondary infection. The most dangerous are
myocarditis and thrombophlebitis with subsequent pulmonary embolism
artery. The diagnosis is based on clinical data with respect to
Treatment of psittacosis
Assign tetracycline 0.4-0.5 g four times a day
5-7-day normal body temperature. When intolerance
Tetracycline, as well as in the treatment of children under 10 years and pregnant
Women prescribed erythromycin 0.25 g 4 times a day for 5-10 days from the time of normalization of body temperature.
Prevention is the prevention and treatment of psittacosis in