Psittacosis: Symptoms and Treatment

Content

  • What is psittacosis
  • The symptoms of psittacosis
  • Treatment of psittacosis



  • What is psittacosis

    Psittacosis (formerly known as "psittacosis") - an acute infectious
    disease characterized by general intoxication, lesions
    lung, nervous system, spleen and liver enlargement.

    The causative agent - an obligate intracellular parasite
    Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia belonging to the family. Outside the cell
    host metabolic functions of the bacteria are minimized and
    they are difficult to detect; they can be distinguished by infecting white
    mice or chick embryos, and in tissue cultures. chlamydia
    inactivated when heated above 70 ° C and under the action
    disinfectants. In the external environment are stored up to 3 weeks.

    Psittacosis: Symptoms and Treatment
    The main mode of transmission - airborne dust and airborne.
    The pathogen was detected in 140 kinds of domestic and wild birds; recent
    set it apart from the feces and discharge from the nasal passages. chlamydia
    fall feathers, feathers, eggs and various environmental objects.
    It should be remembered that the epidemiological importance of different birds
    is not the same; in nature are the main reservoir of the pathogen
    waterfowl, and birds among commensal main danger
    are pigeons (infected up to 50% of the population). Infection with
    contact with a sick person is rare, as it highlights
    few pathogens and its body of their virulent properties
    weakened. Some authors suggest a possible epidemic
    the risk of sheep, cows, dogs and cats; identified as spontaneous
    contamination of certain species of rodents.

    In the human pathogen penetrates mainly through
    mucous membranes of the respiratory system (inhalation of infected
    dust). Lesions of the upper respiratory tract with ornithosis available,
    but in the bronchi, according to bronchoscopy revealed marked
    inflammatory changes. Some patients in the mouths of the bronchi
    there is a mucous plug, occlusive lumen that can
    lead to the development of atelectasis. The pathogen multiplies in
    epithelial (the outermost layer of the skin) cells and then enters into the blood, causing
    development of general intoxication (poisoning), as well as the defeat of a number of organs (liver,
    spleen, myocardium, brain). People with a good immune system infection
    It may be asymptomatic (so called inapparent form). In
    Most patients cleansing the body of the pathogen occurs in
    Within a few weeks, but sometimes it can be saved in chlamydia
    the body up to 8 years (chronic forms of ornithosis). When psittacosis
    Immunity unstable, recurrent disease was observed after 1-2
    of the year.



    The symptoms of psittacosis

    The incubation period usually lasts 8-12
    days. Psittacosis can occur in typical (pneumonic) and
    in atypical (meningopnevmoniya, meningitis, ornithosis without defeat
    lungs) forms of varying severity. Pneumonic form of ornithosis
    It begins with acute effects of intoxication (fever, chills,
    headache, fatigue, myalgia, and others.). Symptoms of upper
    respiratory tract were observed. In the early days there are also signs
    defeat the lungs and pleura. Body temperature in most patients
    above 39 ° C.

    Against the background of general intoxication with 2-4-th day of illness
    there are signs of respiratory lesions. There is a cough,
    which can be either dry or with a viscous mucous sputum,
    sometimes mucopurulent or streaked with blood. Half of the patients
    marked pain in the chest, usually stabbing nature associated with
    act of breathing. At the same time there are clinical signs and
    pneumonia, which is localized mainly in the lower lung lobes.
    and the lower right lobe is affected 2 times more often than the left. TO
    the end of the 1st week of the majority (70%) patients showed an increase in
    liver and spleen.

    Signs of severe intoxication saved up
    7-10-th day of illness, and then gradually begin to decrease; wherein
    changes in the lungs and other organs are preserved. Body temperature
    decreases usually politically, but after that the patient's state of health
    a long time is not normal. In moderate and severe forms of ornithosis complete
    restoration comes only through 2-2,5 months.

    Chronic forms of ornithosis in recent years are rare.

    Complications with psittacosis may be due to both chlamydia and
    grew stratifying secondary infection. The most dangerous are
    myocarditis and thrombophlebitis with subsequent pulmonary embolism
    artery. The diagnosis is based on clinical data with respect to
    epidemiological assumptions.



    Treatment of psittacosis

    Assign tetracycline 0.4-0.5 g four times a day
    5-7-day normal body temperature. When intolerance
    Tetracycline, as well as in the treatment of children under 10 years and pregnant
    Women prescribed erythromycin 0.25 g 4 times a day for 5-10 days from the time of normalization of body temperature.

    Prevention is the prevention and treatment of psittacosis in
    poultry.

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