Ways of infection and treatment of tularemia


  • tularemia
  • How does tularemia
  • How is infection with tularemia
  • How we treat
  • How is the diagnosis of tularemia
  • Can you prevent tularemia

  • tularemia

    Tularemia (also known as cleft disease or murine disease) - an infectious disease,
    which is caused by bacteria that stand out from the rabbit mites. First
    This disease has been described in Japan in 1837 year. This name has
    directly related to the description of the plague in the protein in Tulare County
    California, 1911, and subsequent studies have been made by Dr.
    Edward Francis. Tularemia is found in North America and
    many parts of Europe and Asia. It can be found throughout the world in more
    than a hundred species of wild animals, birds and insects. Animals that can
    tularemia in addition to rabbits - a meadow mice, woodchucks,
    squirrels, beavers, wolves, coyotes, opossums, sheep, and various species of birds.

    There are two ways for people to catch tularemia:

    • From
      the bite of infected ticks or other insects. When the virus enters the
      Human blood from insect bites into various parts of the body, there is
      sudden pain and fever, and there is a fever.
    • When the damaged areas of the skin come into direct contact with an infected rabbit body, the infection is transmitted to man.

    Less common methods of infection - is the use of
    contaminated water, inhaling dust from contaminated soil, as well as direct
    contact with infected animals. Usually tularemia does not surrender by
    person to person.

    How does tularemia

    In humans, tularemia may appear in two forms in
    Depending on how the patient became infected. The most common form of
    Infection occurs through the bite of an infected tick or from contact with the
    infected animals. The patient has an ulcer formed on the infectious site, become inflamed and swell lymph nodes. The appearance of ulcers may be accompanied by high fever,
    which is typical for influenza. Symptoms begin to appear within
    1-14 days after infection entering the human body. Fever
    It lasts for 3-6 weeks, if not used any type of treatment
    antibiotics to kill bacteria. Patients with less
    common form of tularemia, which is formed by inhalation
    contaminated air, usually sharply freeze, they have a
    fever, begins a sharp weight loss, abdominal pain is felt,
    fatigue, and headaches. Patients with this form of tularemia can
    develop pneumonia, which can be fatal.

    How is infection with tularemia

    Ways of infection and treatment of tularemia
    Reports of sudden outbreaks of tularemia disease indicated two primary ways
    disease transmission. The time of year when most reported outbreaks
    disease tularemia, coincides with the hunting season for rabbits, which
    They can be infected and transmit the infection to humans (as seen in the second

    The risk of the disease tularemia from rabbits is the most common,
    especially when handling rabbits after hunting during the process
    cleaning. Hunters rabbits recommend wearing protective rubber
    gloves to reduce the risk of a direct contract with the bacteria that
    cause tularemia, particularly when the damaged skin (scrapes,
    open wounds, blisters) comes into contact with an infected dead body
    rabbit or live infected rabbit.

    Before use, rabbit meat must be fully prepared.
    This does not mean that you really should not eat rabbit meat, just
    make sure that in the middle of it does not contain blood. Bacteria that
    cause tularemia, can live for weeks in water, soil,
    body and disappear over many years in a frozen rabbit meat.

    Frequency of tularemia disease over the past 50 years decreased. Bacteria - a danger for those who work closely with the rabbits.
    In almost all cases of the disease reported in the past
    years, this infection from the bite of rabbits instead of working for dressing
    rabbit skins. It must be remembered that only 5-10 bacteria can
    cause the disease. Other bacteria can get to the person from industrial wood waste, as well as the bacteria can get to the person while in the countryside, where many infected rabbits.

    How we treat

    Doctors recommend the vaccine for preventionpeople who are at increased risk and possible contract the bacteria. Tularemia If left untreated, it results in death in 10-15% of cases, and if the disease is more serious in the switched phase,
    typhoid fever, the risk of death was 35%. Special medication
    Both the risk of mortality is reduced to about 1%. If you
    suspect infected with tularemia, seek
    medical specialist. To eliminate infectious bacteria are well suited
    antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Usually
    after a course of antibiotics is no longer a person infected with tularemia.
    However, some cases are shown and repeated illness.

    How is the diagnosis of tularemia

    Diagnosis of tularemia is very difficult, because the symptoms of tularemia are very similar to symptoms of other diseases. However, tularemia can be a positive test for antibodies to diagnose,
    However, the doctor may not conduct such a test would be, if you do not
    ckazhete him that you - hunter of rabbits, or you spend a lot of
    Free time outdoors, or that you are bitten by a rabbit.
    Patients who provide a complete medical information about your pastime more often diagnosed with more accuracy.

    Can you prevent tularemia

    During skinning a rabbit must beuse a rubber, plastic or latex gloves, especially if you have wounds on the hands or scratching. wild rabbit meat should be cooked thoroughly.
    This does not mean that it is not necessary to eat meat rabbit, just
    make sure the meat is cooked without blood. If you are on
    outdoors, avoid various insect bites, which can
    be carriers of the disease, just carry insect repellent.
    Also, be careful when handling animals, especially if
    are wild animals that can bite you. Any insect bite
    to be treated and disinfected. Using tweezers, slowly
    pull the insect out of the skin at an angle of 90%, do not twist the insect and
    the head may remain in the skin. After that, wash hands and
    treat the bite.

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