Tularemia (also known as cleft disease or murine disease) - an infectious disease,
which is caused by bacteria that stand out from the rabbit mites. First
This disease has been described in Japan in 1837 year. This name has
directly related to the description of the plague in the protein in Tulare County
California, 1911, and subsequent studies have been made by Dr.
Edward Francis. Tularemia is found in North America and
many parts of Europe and Asia. It can be found throughout the world in more
than a hundred species of wild animals, birds and insects. Animals that can
tularemia in addition to rabbits - a meadow mice, woodchucks,
squirrels, beavers, wolves, coyotes, opossums, sheep, and various species of birds.
There are two ways for people to catch tularemia:
the bite of infected ticks or other insects. When the virus enters the
Human blood from insect bites into various parts of the body, there is
sudden pain and fever, and there is a fever.
- When the damaged areas of the skin come into direct contact with an infected rabbit body, the infection is transmitted to man.
Less common methods of infection - is the use of
contaminated water, inhaling dust from contaminated soil, as well as direct
contact with infected animals. Usually tularemia does not surrender by
person to person.
How does tularemia
In humans, tularemia may appear in two forms in
Depending on how the patient became infected. The most common form of
Infection occurs through the bite of an infected tick or from contact with the
infected animals. The patient has an ulcer formed on the infectious site, become inflamed and swell lymph nodes. The appearance of ulcers may be accompanied by high fever,
which is typical for influenza. Symptoms begin to appear within
1-14 days after infection entering the human body. Fever
It lasts for 3-6 weeks, if not used any type of treatment
antibiotics to kill bacteria. Patients with less
common form of tularemia, which is formed by inhalation
contaminated air, usually sharply freeze, they have a
fever, begins a sharp weight loss, abdominal pain is felt,
fatigue, and headaches. Patients with this form of tularemia can
develop pneumonia, which can be fatal.
How is infection with tularemia
Reports of sudden outbreaks of tularemia disease indicated two primary ways
disease transmission. The time of year when most reported outbreaks
disease tularemia, coincides with the hunting season for rabbits, which
They can be infected and transmit the infection to humans (as seen in the second
The risk of the disease tularemia from rabbits is the most common,
especially when handling rabbits after hunting during the process
cleaning. Hunters rabbits recommend wearing protective rubber
gloves to reduce the risk of a direct contract with the bacteria that
cause tularemia, particularly when the damaged skin (scrapes,
open wounds, blisters) comes into contact with an infected dead body
rabbit or live infected rabbit.
Before use, rabbit meat must be fully prepared.
This does not mean that you really should not eat rabbit meat, just
make sure that in the middle of it does not contain blood. Bacteria that
cause tularemia, can live for weeks in water, soil,
body and disappear over many years in a frozen rabbit meat.
Frequency of tularemia disease over the past 50 years decreased. Bacteria - a danger for those who work closely with the rabbits.
In almost all cases of the disease reported in the past
years, this infection from the bite of rabbits instead of working for dressing
rabbit skins. It must be remembered that only 5-10 bacteria can
cause the disease. Other bacteria can get to the person from industrial wood waste, as well as the bacteria can get to the person while in the countryside, where many infected rabbits.
How we treat
Doctors recommend the vaccine for preventionpeople who are at increased risk and possible contract the bacteria. Tularemia If left untreated, it results in death in 10-15% of cases, and if the disease is more serious in the switched phase,
typhoid fever, the risk of death was 35%. Special medication
Both the risk of mortality is reduced to about 1%. If you
suspect infected with tularemia, seek
medical specialist. To eliminate infectious bacteria are well suited
antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Usually
after a course of antibiotics is no longer a person infected with tularemia.
However, some cases are shown and repeated illness.
How is the diagnosis of tularemia
Diagnosis of tularemia is very difficult, because the symptoms of tularemia are very similar to symptoms of other diseases. However, tularemia can be a positive test for antibodies to diagnose,
However, the doctor may not conduct such a test would be, if you do not
ckazhete him that you - hunter of rabbits, or you spend a lot of
Free time outdoors, or that you are bitten by a rabbit.
Patients who provide a complete medical information about your pastime more often diagnosed with more accuracy.
Can you prevent tularemia
During skinning a rabbit must beuse a rubber, plastic or latex gloves, especially if you have wounds on the hands or scratching. wild rabbit meat should be cooked thoroughly.
This does not mean that it is not necessary to eat meat rabbit, just
make sure the meat is cooked without blood. If you are on
outdoors, avoid various insect bites, which can
be carriers of the disease, just carry insect repellent.
Also, be careful when handling animals, especially if
are wild animals that can bite you. Any insect bite
to be treated and disinfected. Using tweezers, slowly
pull the insect out of the skin at an angle of 90%, do not twist the insect and
the head may remain in the skin. After that, wash hands and
treat the bite.