For the first time, the data that is worse in smokersheal wounds, were obtained Mosley and Finseth in 1977. Their observations were podverzhdeno many subsequent studies. For example, Goldminz and Bennet (Arch. Dermatol., 1991) followed the engraftment 916 skin mikrotransplantantov and grafts and found that in those patients who smoked an average of one pack a day, necrosis (rejection and necrosis) were three times more likely than in non-smokers. In those two packs smoked per day, necrosis occurred 6 times more.
Most likely, the reason for the delayed wound healingIt is that nicotine causes vasoconstriction, which leads to tissue hypoxia (wound healing requires a good blood supply). In addition, tobacco smoke induces the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood vessels, which further worsens the skin respiration.
It should be borne in mind that the vasoconstriction caused bynicotine lasts for quite a while - up to 90 minutes after each cigarette. This means that a person who smokes at an interval of half an hour, the skin creates a permanent anoxia.
In 1995, researchers Ippen H. and Ippen M. coined the term "smoker's skin". So they identified wrinkled, gray and lifeless skin, which was typical for intensive smokers, especially women. Further studies have confirmed that the skin suffers more women smoking than men's skin, and that the negative effect is manifested in the appearance of premature wrinkles.
Other researchers have also reported negativeeffects of smoking on the skin. So, Keough et al (. Arch Dermatol.1997) proposed the term-Favre syndrome Rakuchota (Favre-Racouchot) - deep wrinkles and multiple comedones * in smokers.
The mechanism of formation of wrinkles in smokers morenot well understood. However, it found that smokers in skin areas protected from the sun, are detected thickened and fragmented elastin fibers.
It is also possible that one of the factors leading towrinkle is again chronic skin oxygen starvation leads, including a reduction in collagen synthesis and a skin regeneration deceleration. Since not all smokers have "smoker's skin", it is necessary to take into account genetic characteristics of the skin.
Several studies have shown that the risk ofsquamous cell skin cancer development in smokers above, the risk increases with the number of packs smoked per day. On the contrary, the risk of another type of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, is not associated with smoking.
There is also no conclusive evidence of a linksmoking and the incidence of melanoma, although some scientists are still unaware that this connection exists. The mechanism of the effect of smoking on the development of squamous cell skin cancer is still unclear, although there may be affected by factors such as the slowdown in skin renewal and immunosuppression.
Smokers are more likely than non-smokers, foundLip cancer. The risk increases even more with frequent use of alcohol and excessive solar irradiation (accommodation in sunny countries, work in the sun or love the beaches). The risk of developing oral cancer does not depend on the method of tobacco use, whether it is smoking pipe, cigarettes or chewing tobacco.
Smokers often develop so-tubescalled "smoker's palate" - Actinic palate with the advent of multiple red knots. A similar phenomenon, but observed on the back of the tongue, called "smoker's tongue."
Often occurs in smokers and leukoplakia -White painless plaques, which sometimes (albeit rarely) degenerate into malignant tumors. The most unpleasant phenomenon is necrotizing ulcerative gigngivit - a painful inflammation of the tongue, accompanied by bleeding and halitosis. This disease affects only smokers.
Yellow and brown spots on the nails and fingerstypical for smokers, especially those who smoke a lot. Buerger's disease (Buerger disease), or ulcers, necrosis and skin redness occurs most frequently in smokers. Systemic lupus erythematosus is also more common in smokers.
*comedones - Small black dots on the skin, resulting from accumulation of dirt and sebum, plugging the pores.