Catatonia? Cal syndrome? (Catatonia? S) (al-Greek. κατατε νω -? to pull, strain) - psychopathological syndrome (syndrome group), the main clinical manifestations of which are the motor disorders. For the first time Kahlbaum catatonia is described as an independent mental illness, Kraepelin subsequently attributed to schizophrenia. The structure of the catatonic syndrome isolated catatonic excitement and catatonic stupor.
What is catatonic excitement
There are two forms of catatonic excitement:
- Pathetic catatonic excitementIt is characterized by the gradual development, moderate motor and verbal stimulation. In a speech much pathos can be celebrated echolalia. The mood is high, but has the character not hyperthymia and exaltation, periodically observed wanton laughter. With an increase in symptoms appear hebephrenia features - gebefreno-catatonic excitement. There are impulsive actions. Disorders of consciousness does not occur.
- Impulsive catatonic excitementdevelops acute, rapid action, often violent and destructive, are socially dangerous. It consists of a single word or phrase, characteristic of echolalia, echopraxia, perseveration. In the ultimate expression of this kind of catatonic excitation of chaotic motion, may acquire choreiform character, patients are prone to self-harm, silent.
What is catatonic stupor
Catatonic stupor is characterizedmotor inhibition, silence, muscular hypertension. The state-bound patients may be in a few weeks or even months. It violated all kinds of activities, including instinctive.
There are three types of catatonic stupor:
- Stupor with waxy flexibility (catalepticstupor) is characterized by hardening of the patient for a long time adopted them or to give him a position, even very uncomfortable. Do not react to loud speech may respond to quiet shёpotnuyu it spontaneously released as in a silence of the night, becoming available to contact.
- Negativistic stupor is characterized, in addition to the motor block, the constant opposition of the patient to any attempts to change its position.
- Stupor with astonishment characterized by the greatestthe severity of motor inhibition and muscle hypertension. Patients take a long time and retain embriopozu, there may be a symptom of an air cushion.
There are mutual transitions from one kind of stupor inanother pathetic excitation impulsive, although it is rare. There are mutual transitions catatonic stupor and excitement to the contrary: the pathetic excitation can be replaced cataleptic stupor, impulsive - or negativistic stupor with astonishment, as well as stupor may suddenly interrupted by the respective views of excitement.
When cataleptic stupor may occurhallucinations, delusions, sometimes signs of consciousness type oneiric t. n. oneiric catatonia, at the outlet of which a large part of the productive symptoms amneziruetsya. Negativistic stupor and catatonia with stupor presented t. N. lucid (clear, clean) catatonia in which no productive symptoms, no clouding of consciousness, patients are focused, aware and remember the surrounding.
Catatonic syndromes observed in schizophrenia, infectious, organic and other psychoses. According to two studies, catatonic symptoms occur in 12-17% of young people with autism.