The most dangerous is considered dysarthria in childrenbecause with the loss of normal speech violated their adaptation to the outside world because it is difficult to perceive it by ear, and accordingly, in the future, to read and write. In this regard, with the older simpler. In adults, dysarthria destroys speech perception by ear. As people heard and understood the above, and after gaining dysarthria he understands everything. And read as well as read before. And his writing abilities are not affected disease. I changed it.
Let's talk about everything in order. First, let's answer the question: what can cause dysarthria an adult?
Firstly, it is a stroke (poor circulationin the brain). This is the most common cause of dysarthria in adults. Among other reasons include cardiovascular disorders, inflammation and brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease (progressive destruction of central nervous system), Parkinson (chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system), Huntington's (a genetic disease of the nervous system). In this list, you can add multiple sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis.
Much less dysarthria occurs as a resulthead injuries, poisoning (lead or carbon monoxide) or the medication overdose. Finish this list of infections and toxins caused by drugs and alcohol. As you can see, unlike children, adults dysarthria may arise from the "deliberate" acts.
Causes of dysarthria we have identified, andon the same story as that of the children. The speech unit as a child and an adult requires a coordinated simultaneous operation of a number of systems. And breach at any point in the system (or interoperability) could lead to dysarthria.
That system involved in the formation of speech:
- The respiratory system, which consists of the nose, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. Its main purpose - it is the power of the body with oxygen, carbon dioxide output and phonation.
- Articulating system, which consists oflarynx, vocal cords, tongue, hard and soft palate, teeth, lips, and resonators. The main objective of articulating the system (device) - the creation of the sounds of speech, ie speech production.
- The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which by means of the peripheral nervous system "organizes" the coordinated work of the whole organism, and it as well.
Light air stream is fed into the trachea and larynx. Where do without air. The air in the larynx produces a voice that reflected in the resonators, enters the articulation device. And really there for it come from the soft palate, tongue, teeth, lips and jaw. What we have at the exit? Vowels and consonants, of which we create words and sentences. And throughout this chain of the central nervous system keeps track of the process and provides the necessary commands.
This is the perfect picture. And we're talking about dysarthria. Dysarthria is a violation of pronunciation, arising from a lesion of the central nervous system. If the respiratory system is in poor condition, it means that the voice may be too quiet. Problems in the larynx can manifest itself in a slow, hoarse voice. The soft palate is responsible for ensuring that the voice was "measure" bow. And if it is illegible and unclear - it is necessary to understand the language, lips, jaw and other "employees" articulation device.
The main method of treatment of dysarthria - Treatment ofdisease which caused it. But most of all, this is not enough. It is best to start to train all the systems involved in the formation of speech.
In order to strengthen the (train)respiratory system often use the AN system exercises Strelnikova. This respiratory system is also called paradoxical. What is its paradoxical? The fact that it is at odds with the conventional breathing exercises. We are used to that bending - do exhale. A straightening - breath. In Strelnikovoj opposite is true: the slope, and the sharp intake of breath; straightening up - exhale.
Articulating the system also lends itself to training. We have already described some complex articulation exercises with which you can "teach" correct actions organs of speech production. Of course, to do massages: relaxing muscles in spasm; the excessive relaxation of muscles on the contrary, intensify.
The central nervous system is also "trains"as strange as it sounds. Her training took place at the same time articulating training and respiratory system. Simultaneously and seamlessly eye. That is, by performing articulation and breathing exercises automatically "are" damaged connections between brain areas.