In the blood serum of patients with myasthenia areantibodies to the protein in skeletal muscle, epithelial cells of the thymus gland, and receptors that can produce acetylcholine (a substance with which transmit nerve stimulation), which is a sign of autoimmune aggression - the development of antibodies against its own tissues (normal antibodies are produced to protect against external influences; gluing with antigen, such as bacteria or viruses, they are precipitated and removed from the body).
In myasthenia gravis often detected proliferation orvarious tumors of the thymus, which is responsible for the formation and development of cellular immunity. Myasthenia gravis can appear immediately, provoking factors are stress, respiratory diseases, immune disorders, high physical activity, etc.
The disease is often subacute orchronic. There are oculomotor disturbances in the form of the omission of the century (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), disorders of the pharynx and larynx muscles (difficulty in swallowing, speech and voice disorders), general weakness and fatigue. This phenomenon manifests widespread muscle fatigue during muscular load, which takes place during the holidays.
One of the symptoms may be a violationactivity of the endocrine glands: increased function of the thyroid gland, adrenal insufficiency, which in turn can cause a deficiency in potassium, which is needed for the heart muscle - there are cardiovascular disorders.
In childhood myasthenia gravis may occur as a congenital, early childhood and juvenile forms.
Congenital form appears weak perturbationfetus after birth - a weak cry, difficulty in sucking and swallowing. After 4-6 weeks, these effects disappear. Early children's form is characterized by a mild course and mostly local symptoms (one muscle group defeat). The juvenile form starts at 11-16 years of age and manifests common disorders.
Under the influence of various external factors(Infections, exercise, stress), violations of the endocrine system can come sharp deterioration - myasthenic crisis. The crisis manifested the rapid spread of myasthenic disorders with significant disorders of the eye muscles, muscles of the pharynx and larynx. The patients can not swallow, not only food but also saliva, there are shortness of breath, anxiety, alternating with apathy. Sometimes 10-20 minutes may develop a serious condition with loss of consciousness.
- typical symptoms of myasthenia gravis;
- pharmacological test, when the background of the introduction of neostigmine (inhibits the activity of the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine) dramatically improves the patient's condition;
- state of neuromuscular transmission, which can be verified by using a special method of functional diagnostics - electromyography;
- Immunological laboratory studies (as determined by the titer of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors and muscle protein).
When a progressive form of myasthenia heldsurgery - remove the thymus gland. The best results are in the case, if the operation was carried out in the first three years after onset.