Ataxia - a coordination of movements,developing as a result of the defeat of the various structures, providing a complex mechanism for coordination. Defeat can capture the nerves, by which a person feels movement (sensory ataxia), vestibular system is responsible for maintaining the balance (vestibular ataxia) or cerebral cortex, responsible for conscious (cortical ataxia).
Sensory ataxia develops most often inthe affected part of the spinal cord and the brain, responsible for sensitivity, rarely if damaged nerves, which are the signals. The reason for this can be a variety of disease or injury. Man loses of the situation of parts of his body in space, it does not feel the direction and range of motion. Sensory ataxia may be static (violation maintain posture) and dynamic (movement disorder).
In sensory ataxia dramatically upsetthe patient's gait that acquires a "stamp character". When walking, the foot is bent over in the knee and hip joints and excessive force falls to the floor. Patients have the feeling of "falling" "walking on cotton wool" Enormous role played by vision, by which the patient tries to compensate for the lack of a sense of movement. With closed eyes ataxia symptoms much worse. Upset feelings of motion can also occur in the hands. At rest, the fingers outstretched arms involuntarily change their position, making unnecessary spontaneous movement. In severe sensory ataxia patient is unable to stand and walk.
Vestibular ataxia occurs in lesionsvestibular apparatus in any of his department. It is observed in diseases of the inner ear, encephalitis, brain tumors, and violation of its blood supply. Vestibular ataxia appears as if attempting to maintain posture (static ataxia), and in motion (dynamic ataxia). Intensity ataxia increases at a certain position of the head and whole body, at the eye corners. Patients Avoid sudden head movements and gently change the position of the body. With closed eyes incoordination more amplified.
Most often suffer from one side of the vestibularapparatus. For such a situation, characterized by staggering when walking with a deviation to the affected side. If a patient asked to sit with eyes closed a few steps in a straight line back and forth, then the trajectory of its motion constantly deviates from the original direction and resembles a star pattern.
Vestibular ataxia combined with othervestibular disorders. Typically, dizziness noted: surrounding objects are rotated in a certain direction, particularly at certain positions of the head and the body. Against the background of vertigo can cause nausea, vomiting, dimming of consciousness. There twitching eye.
Cortical ataxia mainly linked tolesion of the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for voluntary movement, and coordinates the work of the majority of systems. Cortical ataxia observed in cerebrovascular diseases, including stroke, brain tumors, encephalitis.
Cortical ataxia appears static anddynamic coordination disorders. It changes the patient's gait, getting "drunk" character. When walking the patient deviates in the opposite side of the lesion. In severe lesions of the cerebral cortex the patient loses the ability to stand and walk, develop paralysis. Cortical ataxia combined with other signs of lesions of the cerebral cortex: a change of mentality, auditory, olfactory hallucinations, memory deficits on current events, visual disturbances.