Uterine cancer is the fourth in women

Content

  • Risk factors
  • What is cervical cancer?
  • What appears uterine cancer?
  • As revealed cancer of the uterus?
  • How to treat uterine cancer?




  • Risk factors

    Diabetes,
    hypertension, smoking, infection with papilloma virus
    person with HIV, early sexual activity, and late menopause
    menstrual irregularities, infertility, a large number of
    sexual partners, early first birth, sexually transmitted diseases,
    acceptance of oral contraceptives.

    One of the most important risk factors is obesity:
    female weighing in excess of the rate of 10-25 kg, the risk of
    endometrial cancer 3 times higher than the normal body weight, while the
    Women with excess body weight more than 25 kg in disease risk 9
    times higher.

    Widely known precancerous conditions,
    playing a significant role in the occurrence of cervical cancer. This erosion,
    ulcers, scars after birth trauma, epithelial growths (warts,
    polyps) and leukoplakia, and chronic inflammatory processes -
    endocervicitis and endometritis.


    What is cervical cancer?

    Respectively
    the nature of the uterine epithelium of various departments distinguish between squamous
    cancer of the cervix and glandular cancer (adenocarcinoma) of the cervical canal and cavity
    uterus. Adenocarcinoma - the main morphological variant (70%).
    It should be noted that a relatively rare tumor, affecting the uterus,
    It is a sarcoma. There are three degrees of tumor differentiation
    (Highly differentiated, moderately differentiated and
    undifferentiated).

    When cancer of the uterus are 4 stages of development:

    • Stage I - the location of the tumor in the body of the uterus,
    • Stage II - the body and damage the cervix,
    • II stadiya- spread on parametrial tissue or metastasized into the vagina,
    • Stage IV - spread beyond the pelvis, the germination of the bladder or rectum.



    What appears uterine cancer?


    clinical
    symptomatology consists of complaints about the whites, bleeding and pain. but
    all three of these symptoms occur in the decay period of the tumor, and time
    appearance depends on the date of commencement of ulceration. Therefore, in some cases
    for an extended period of uterine cancer can not give any symptoms.

    whites
    There are various character: watery, mucous, blood stained,
    no odor and foul-smelling. The admixture of blood gives belyam kind of meat slops.
    Delay secretions in the vagina and join the infection leads to
    the appearance of purulent leucorrhea with the scent. In cancer, III and IV isolation steps
    carry out a putrid nature of the genital tract. Bleeding can wear
    the nature of small bleeding, as well as single or
    multiple heavy. For cervical cancer are very typical way
    called contact bleeding (during sexual intercourse, when
    douching, vaginal examination or after the lifting of gravity). If
    the woman has stopped menstruating, then the appearance of bleeding
    vaginal discharge in most cases is a sign
    cancer.

    The pains are late
    symptoms suggestive of involvement in the cancer process
    lymph nodes of the pelvis and fiber forming infiltrates
    compressing the nerve trunks and plexus. Common symptoms and, in particular,
    cachexia (weight loss) occur very late, in a very
    advanced stages, and usually women suffering from cervical cancer, retain
    apparently flourishing, healthy appearance.


    As revealed cancer of the uterus?


    Recognition
    uterine cancer begins with the study of patient complaints and course of the disease. In all
    suspected by history cases, patients are subject to immediate
    examination by a gynecologist. It is unacceptable to assign any
    Treatment of such patients without a detailed examination.

    The survey includes vaginal bimanual study, rectal bimanual research and examination with the help of mirrors.

    Uterine cancer is the fourth in women
    at
    vaginal examination in cases fairly pronounced tumor
    the process can not determine these or other changes in the cervix, depending
    from the growth of the tumor type (exophytic, endophytic and mixed). how
    Generally, the study is accompanied by bleeding as a result of
    injury tumor exploring finger. In advanced disease
    uterus additionally conduct research through the rectum for
    clarify the transition of the tumor on the pelvic wall and sacro-uterine ligaments.

    To detect early stages of cervical cancer
    can not be limited to vaginal examination; necessarily
    carrying out inspection by means of mirrors. To detect early cancers in
    all cases of any changes in the cervix take swabs for
    cytology or biopsy. If cancer is suspected,
    the cervical canal and the uterine cavity is performed diagnostic separation
    curettage of the cervical canal and uterine cavity and subsequent
    histological examination.

    All
    These studies can be carried out already in the clinic if
    necessary tools and aseptically. For
    illustrate the importance of a comprehensive survey is sufficient to indicate that
    Cervical cancer remains undiagnosed in more than half of the patients,
    which the survey was only two-handed vaginal
    study. At the same time, when viewed by a number of errors in the mirror
    diagnosis decreased almost 5 times, and when they use biopsy
    observed only in rare cases.

    In recent years, widespread
    distribution and importance acquired ultrasound imaging
    (US), allowing to identify the changes in the uterus are not available to others
    research methods and has become a mandatory method of research at
    any suspected benign and malignant neoplasms in
    uterus.

    To establish the lymph nodes and
    metastasis, which is very often accompanied by cervical cancer, have resorted to
    X-ray methods - lymphography and ileokavagrafii. For the same
    order to carry out X-ray of the chest, intravenous
    pyelography, ergography, cystoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. maybe
    conducting CT, MRI, limfangiografii, fine needle biopsy of the tumor.

    These studies are very important in cancer of the uterus to develop a plan of radiation or combination therapy.


    How to treat uterine cancer?


    Tactics
    treatment depends on the patient's age, general condition and clinical
    the stage of cancer. Treatment is mainly surgical (hysterectomy with
    appendages and sometimes the removal of the pelvic lymph nodes). maybe
    combined treatment - surgery, radiation and then remote to
    the vaginal stump, intracavitary gamma therapy. Wires and
    preoperative radiotherapy mainly in stage III.
    Radiation therapy as an independent method is used in the local
    dissemination of the tumor process, with contraindications to surgery.
    Anticancer drugs are effective in low-grade
    tumors at stages III and IV disease.

    Uterine cancer is the fourth in women
    When cervical cancer with the same successprovide treatment as a method of combined radiotherapy and surgery (extended hysterectomy with appendages). Treatment depends on the stage of the disease. In Ia stage (microinvasive carcinoma) produce a hysterectomy with appendages. In stage Ib
    (The cancer is confined to the cervix) is shown the remote or intracavitary
    irradiation followed by extended hysterectomy with appendages,
    or conversely generate first operation and then the remote
    gammaterapiyu.

    In stage II (involvement
    the upper part of the vagina, a transition to the body of the uterus and infiltration
    option without going to the pelvic wall) the main treatment
    It is radiation, surgeryrarely used. In stage III (the transition to the lower part of the vagina, infiltration parameters with the transition to the pelvic bone) shows radiation treatment. Finally, in step IV
    (Transition to the bladder, rectum, or distant
    metastasis) apply only palliative radiation. In late
    symptomatic treatment stages may use
    chemotherapy.

    After treatment
    mandatory periodic visits to the doctor for examination bodies
    pelvic and swabs. Also, the study include X-rays
    of the chest, ultrasound and intravenous pyelography. During
    First, the physician visits every 3 months, then for 5 years -
    every 6 months. After 5 years, control is carried out annually.

    At relapse,
    if the process is localized, carried out a partial or total pelvic
    exenteration (removal single unit uterus, cervix, vagina,
    The parameters of the bladder and the rectum). If you have a remote
    metastases, patients usually receive chemotherapy. Radiation therapy can be
    used for the palliative treatment of painful metastases.

    Metastasis. Most
    tumors often metastasize to the pelvic lymph nodes, at least in
    inguinal. Distant metastases are more often in the kidneys, liver, lungs, have
    poor prognosis.

    Forecast. at
    uterine cancer 5-year survival rate after surgery from 84 to
    45% depending on the stage of the disease. In 25% of patients relapse,
    initially underwent surgery, may be spared
    from relapse using pelvic radiotherapy. at
    cure metastatic relapse cases are extremely rare, and
    the therapeutic effect is unique and short. In stage IV disease
    5-year survival rates - up to 9%.

    Prevention. Early
    diagnosis and prevention of cervical cancer are only possible through
    systematic preventive examinations of all women older than 30 years (not
    at least 2 times per year). it is desirable to begin regular surveys
    onset of sexual activity. Regular checkups, ultrasound imaging and
    cytology (every 2 years) facilitate the identification
    precancerous diseases and their treatment - prevention of cancer.

    Not
    Equally important is the timely and correct treatment
    cervical precancers. Especially characteristic features,
    unique to precancerous cervical disease, no, they
    proceed as normal inflammatory diseases. common to
    precancerous disease symptoms are chronic long-term
    for, persistence of symptoms, and most importantly the lack of effect on
    conservative (anti-inflammatory) treatment. Treatment of precancerous
    cervical disease should be radical and is
    electrosurgical, electrocautery lesions or even
    cervical amputation. Resorts to the ray method of treatment in the form of
    applicative radium therapy. Among patients treated by radical
    about the various precancerous lesions, cervical cancer mortality
    It decreased by 6 times.

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