Giardiasis (giardiaz, giardiasis, giardiasis) - a human parasitic infection,
most often occurs as an asymptomatic parazitonositelstvo; can manifest
violation of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary dyskinesia function.
Pathogen - flagellate protozoan Giardia, parasitizing in a thin
intestine and biliary tract. The host organism exists
in the vegetative form and in the form of cysts, excreted with the feces.
Giardiasis is widespread. Source giardiasis - an infected person or animal. The main route of infection giardiasis - dirt in the mouth,
through contaminated hands, toys, food and water. Giardiasis recorded among
all age groups, the main contingent - children of preschool age. cysts
Giardia long remain in the environment (up to 2-3 months).
The probability of developing the disease depends on the virulence of the pathogen, infectious
dose of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and the immune status of the individual.
Giardiasis developing after gut penetration into several (up to 10) cysts.
In humans, they breed in large numbers (1 cm2
intestinal mucosa can be up to 1 million Giardia and more). Vegetative
parasitic forms on the surface of the mucous membranes of the upper part of the small
colon, breaking digestion.
When giardiasis disrupt the absorption of fats, carbohydrates and vitamins.
The bile ducts giardia die quickly under the action of bile. Frequent their detection
while duodenal intubation due to exposure to Giardia duodenal wall
intestine. However, due to their violation of biliary tract motility
It promotes secondary bacterial infections. The duration of the incubation period - 1-3 weeks.
The acute form of giardiasis: is characterized by diarrhea lasting from
5-7 days to several weeks, a decrease in body weight and symptoms
chronic intoxication (blue under the eyes, headache,
fatigue). Unformed stool, oily, fetid, flatulence. In
Adolescents often prevail signs of biliary dyskinesia:
abdominal pain, liver enlargement, constipation. In young children
quickly formed a syndrome of impaired intestinal absorption (not
metabolizes sugar, fats, and vitamins) with the addition of allergic
reactions. Some patients may self-healing.
Chronic giardiasis occurs in the form of periodic exacerbations, characterized by abdominal distention,
diarrhea, pain in the epigastric region
Diagnosis of giardiasis
- Duodenal intubation. Introduction of the probe into the duodenum in order to obtain its contents.
- Detection of Giardia in the feces. In acute forms of isolation of the parasite begins
5-7-day sickness. In chronic forms cysts allocation is periodic
character, so to confirm the diagnosis is recommended to carry out research
feces at intervals of 1 week for 4-5 weeks.
Treatment for giardiasis
- Recommended diet with limited fat, sweet and dairy
products (Giardia reproduce well in sweet medium).
- Mepacrine - within 5 days for adults 100 mg 3 / day, children 2 mg / kg
R 3 / d (up to 300 mg / day)
- Metronidazole - within 5 days for adults 250 mg 3 / day, children 15 mg / kg / day
- Tinidazole - 7 days for adult 2g / day one, children 50-60 mg / kg / day
- Furazolidone - for 7-10 days for adults 100 mg 4 / day, children 6 mg / kg / day
treatment for a few days. In cases of immunity and recurrent
During the course of treatment is achieved by repeated treatment with another drug.