What is diphtheria, causes and progress of the disease
Diphtheria - an acute infectious disease,characterized by local inflammation, especially of the mucous membranes, the phenomena of intoxication and toxic lesions of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
The causative agent is a bacterium diphtheria,resistant to high and low temperatures. It can persist for a long time on the objects used by the patient. Quickly killed by boiling and exposure to disinfectants. In the process of propagation in tissues produces diphtheria bacillus toxin that plays a pivotal role in the development of disease.
The source of infection is a sick man and"Healthy" carriers of diphtheria bacilli, produce toxins. The greatest danger is sick. At the same time, not less than 90% of the diseases diphtheria associated with infection by "healthy" carriers of the causative agent of diphtheria. The causative agent is localized in the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract, standing out in the environment with nasopharyngeal mucus droplets. Of decisive importance in the spread of infection is airborne route of transmission. Microbes diphtheria with droplets of saliva and nasopharyngeal mucus allocated to air carriers and patients by speaking, sneezing, coughing.
The causative agent is most often implemented in the mucousshell throat, rarely is a different localization of the entrance gate (skin, eye, ear, wound, etc.). At the site of introduction into the organism of diphtheria bacillus developing the local inflammatory process. The toxin the pathogen spreads to the surrounding tissues and causes swelling, hyperemia, hemorrhage, destruction of tissue and the formation of fibrinous film. Besides toxin, suck out the breeding sites of pathogen enters the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body, causing a phenomenon of general intoxication and defeat of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. After a previous infection remains strong immunity.
Symptoms of diphtheria
The incubation period is 2-10 days. Depending on the location of the primary process recovered diphtheria pharynx, larynx, nose, and rare forms (eye, ear, skin, wounds, genitals). The most common pharyngeal diphtheria. in which strikes on prevalencerelease forms: localized (ostrovchatuyu, filmy) and widespread. Diphtheria pharynx is characterized by fever, intoxication and local inflammatory changes of the tonsils.
The disease begins with weakness, malaise,appetite disorders. A feature of fever in diphtheria it is short and pronounced. The body temperature, often the entire period of illness, can not exceed 38C, and sometimes normal or rise up to 38C in the first 2-4 days, then coming to the norm. The toxic form of diphtheria can be accompanied by fever for 4-5 days, but then the local and general changes occur against a background of normal body temperature.
Intoxication with diphtheria, unlike otherinfectious diseases manifested by lethargy, drowsiness, weakness, paleness of the skin and is not accompanied by severe chills, severe headache, body aches.
Along with the general toxic syndromethere are local variations. A special feature of the inflammatory process in diphtheria throat congestion is inconspicuous with a bluish tint, marked edema, the presence of plaque on the surface of infected tonsils with little expression of pain in the throat when swallowing and hyperadenosis when probing.
Oslozhenie, prevention and emergency care in diphtheria
Complications of diphtheria caused by action on the organism of diphtheria toxin - myocarditis, paralysis of the heart muscles, paralysis of respiratory muscles and diaphragm, neuritis.
For laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is carried out smear from the throat and nose.
Patients with diphtheria, as well as patients with suspecteddiphtheria subject to immediate isolation and evacuation in the infectious department of the hospital, where is administered diphtheria serum and further treatment is carried out.
The main event for the prevention of diphtheriaare properly organized and conducted in a timely manner vaccination with diphtheria toxoid. To this end, every 10 years, should be re-vaccination against diphtheria.
The apartment disinfection.
For persons who come into contact with sick or carrier diphtheria bacilli established medical surveillance for 7 days and bacteriological study on the carriage.