Mumps infection contagiousdisease whose causative agent is a paramyxovirus virus having affinity for the cells glandular organs. The favorite habitat of the virus in the human body are the salivary glands, where the virus multiplies and is excreted with saliva into the environment. However, often in the pathological process involved other organs such as gonads.
The main manifestation of mumpsis the increase of the parotid salivary glands, which is why a person gets sick lunate shape and ears ottopyrivayutsya. The appearance of the patient is so typical that the disease is more popularly known as "pig."
Mumps is more common in children aged 5-9 years,with boys more severe infection, orchitis and epididymitis, complicating mumps in consequence can affect fertility.
The incubation period of mumpsIt is 15-21 days. During this time the virus multiplies and accumulates in the body, then enters the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body, causing inflammation of the glandular organs, and symptoms of intoxication.
The first "pig" are manifestationsmalaise, poor appetite, lethargy, fever, chills, then there are signs of intoxication, characteristic of all infectious diseases. On the defeat of the salivary glands shows sore throat and a feeling of tension in the angle of the mandible. During the first 3 days of the parotid salivary glands increase in size, become painful, become jelly-like consistency.
Inflammation of the tissues of the testicle (orchitis) and inflammationepididymis (epididymitis) develops 5-8 days after the onset of the disease. By this time the salivary glands become normal size, and the child becomes satisfactory. The involvement in the inflammatory process of the sex glands is accompanied by repeated body temperature rise to 39-400 C, and the appearance of pain in the scrotum. The pain is strong, giving the course of the thigh and lower abdomen, increased urination at virtually paralyzes and prevents the move normally.
Testicular inflammation increases in sizes 2-3times, it becomes very tight, feeling it causes severe pain. The scrotum stretches, expands, her skin swells, turns red. Symptoms of orchitis and epididymitis persist for 3-7 days, then gradually disappear.
Orchitis Most are one-sided, but 3-17%patients with testicular lesion is bilateral. In favorable circumstances, even a two-way process does not cause testicular atrophy, but in half of cases mumps orchitis leads to the death of seminiferous epithelium and subsequent infertility. Sexual sterility does not occur, but the composition of the sperm changes for the worse. Because of hormonal disorders of gonadal function reduces the level of testosterone, the main male hormone, which leads to long-term consequences in the form of reduced sexual function.
Protect the boy from complications can only be vaccinated against mumps. Vaccination creates intense immunity to prevent infection, "mumps" virus.
For specific prophylaxis of mumps usuallyLive vaccines are used, which are obtained from the selected strain of a pathogen. Viruses inactivated vaccines, i.e., lack the ability to "cause" disease, but their proteins, antigens, become a signal to the child's immune system to the top of the specific antibody. Protection level reaches a maxim within 6 weeks from the time of vaccination.
Who recommended vaccinations suchdisease as "mumps"? Vaccination is indicated for all children without a history of mumps at the age of 1 year and 6 years. Emergency prevention is put in when the child who was sick mumps, contact with patients. The vaccine is administered hypodermically using a needleless injector during the first three days from the moment of contact. This makes it possible to prevent the disease or, in any case, the development of complications such as orchitis and epididymitis.
Vaccination against mumps is not usually causecomplications if all contraindications have been taken into account in the vaccination. In most cases, the vaccination process is asymptomatic, some children in the 5-15 day possible rise in body temperature, runny nose and redness of the throat. At 5-7 hours may be some increase in the salivary glands, disappear within 2-3 days.