What is measles
Measles - an acute infectious
disease, occurring with a fever, krupnopyatnistoy rash on the body, with
catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and
The causative agent of measles - a special virus that
characterized by a pronounced almost wholly
infectivity to man. Almost everyone, usually occurring in childhood
aged, sick with measles. However, children up to three months do not get sick with measles, ie.
a. they have saved for a while immunity (immunity) to
measles, they passed the mother, in the past were ill with measles. The only
source of infection with measles is sick of it. Measles is transmitted quickly - just short meeting with the patient, even in the presence of
the next room to the child, without a history of measles, was infected.
is transmitted by airborne droplets (with a small spray of saliva,
allocated by coughing, speaking). A patient is contagious from the first days
disease before the onset of the rash, when he observed
fever, runny nose, sneezing, coughing, etc., and all the time the rash.; after
five days from the onset of the rash the patient already nezarazitelen. at
complications (pneumonia) infectivity lasts longer
(Measles, such patients are not infectious until after the 10th day from the date of
The measles virus really is unstable in the environment and quickly
die outside the patient body. Therefore, special disinfection after measles is not
required; sufficiently after the removal of the patient or his recovery
thoroughly ventilate the room and carefully remove it. Across
Child surrounding persons and things measles is usually not sent. Time
an illness gives immunity (immunity) is usually on
all life; repeated measles cases are extremely rare.
During measles distinguish four periods: incubation (latent) period - from the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease, usually
10-11 days, in rare cases - up to 17 days. During this period, no explicit
manifestations of the disease are not observed (although there are already some changes
blood). Following the incubation period, developing period
precursors (ie. is called. prodrome), which lasts for 3-5 days,
before the rash appears. This period is characterized by increase in temperature
(Up to 38-39), malaise, headache, poor sleep, loss
appetite and inflammation (Qatar) mucous membranes - a runny nose, dry
compulsive cough, conjunctivitis; gradually these effects are amplified:
the face becomes puffy, swollen eyelids, red eyes,
an important feature of measles in this period are rash on the mucous
shell cheeks against the lower molars - small whitish,
towering above the surface of the point, surrounded by red rim, that is.
called. Spot Filatov - Koplik - Belsky. They appear 2-3 days before
rashes and skin rashes disappear in the first or second day of the rash.
rashes period begins with the new temperature rise, gain
painful symptoms and the rash appears (4-6 day from the beginning
disease), first on the face - behind the ears, on the cheeks and forehead, and through
a few hours around the face, especially abundant in the middle of the face (nose,
chin, lips); The next day the rash covering the trunk, in the afternoon
later - limbs.
recovery period, or the period of pigmentation: rash bloom three elements
days and begin to fade in the same order in which they spilled,
partially turning into brownish spots. The skin becomes dry with
small defurfuration on the face and trunk. Temperature
decreases; improves the general condition of the child. However, in the period
recovery of the child for a long time weakened him considerably
decreased resistance to various diseases.
Measles can be easy and difficult. Severe measles is more likely among
Children fed artificially (no breast milk) suffering
rickets, debilitated serious illness (eg.,
influenza) in children with tuberculosis and finally, the children of the first years
life. The most common and dangerous complication of measles, especially for children
early age and frail, is an inflammation of the lungs.
How is the treatment of measles
Treatment: specific therapeutic agents against measles is not. required
hygienic and dietary regimen, careful care. must
to create an environment at home, so that the disease is not easy and gave
to complications. It is necessary to seek medical advice immediately. child must be
put to bed; bed to put in the middle of the room to give
child plenty of air and light (not to be curtain windows only
putting the patient's head back to the light source). It is necessary to frequently ventilate
room, wrapping up well with the child; in the room should not be
hot (t ° 17-18 °). In the warm season should keep the windows open.
All patient care is carried out as directed by the physician children's clinic,
ensure hygienic skin care (baths, wet wiping,
washing), mouth, nose, eyes, with plenty of food
vitamins, drinking plenty of fluids and impeccable cleanliness. Perhaps the best
conditions (clean air, sleep in the air, proper diet, vitamins and
pr.) it is necessary to create a child and recovering from measles to strengthen
his health, impaired disease.
It is important to protect the patient from
additional infection of some other disease (eg.,
flu). When catarrhal symptoms in the respiratory tract is recommended
to give drink alkaline water with milk, milk with soda. If it is impossible
create the required conditions in the home environment, as well as in cases
disease and morbidity especially in children's disease living
in child care, in order to avoid the spread of infection, it is desirable
place the sick in the hospital.
Many parents knowing
that the disease measles is inevitable, often comfortable with the
possible infection of the child with measles. Meanwhile, measles is especially dangerous for
children under the age of 3-4 years, as well as for impaired children other
ages. Therefore, a child at an early age and debilitated children
should be strongly protected against measles. Exclusively
of great importance in this regard have measles vaccination -
injection serum adult blood, suffered measles, or
gamma globulin. This vaccination is carried out, as a rule, all children
from 3 months to 4 years (especially children up to 2 years), not
bolevshim measles and had contact with the patient during the measles
catching her period, as well as sick children and recovering from
any disease, irrespective of age and children with
Tuberculosis. Timely vaccination carried out in most cases
or protect against measles or facilitate its flow.
Contraindications for the introduction of serum and gamma globulin no.
It succeeds if it is made a child soon after meeting with measles
patients, and is only valid for one month. When a new meeting
patients with measles vaccination thereafter repeated. It has a large
the value of early diagnosis of measles, so that you can make
children vaccinated as soon as possible, come into contact with measles.
Therefore, once diagnosed with measles, parents should immediately
report on child disease in nursery or kindergarten to
there promptly made measles vaccination for children of the group,
who visit a sick child. If the apartment is sick with measles,
We must immediately notify the child or children's consultation on this
Centre to immediately make a measles vaccination for children,
living in this apartment, and without a history of measles.
In the prevention of measles
an important role is also played by the general control measures:
timely isolation of cases (at home or in the hospital), prevention
in groups and school children who have contact with measles patients and ne
bolevshih measles, for 17 days from the date of last contact with the
with measles (for unvaccinated children), and within 21 days for graft
(Ie. A. Grafting in case of illness can extend period of incubation