Prevention and treatment of measles

Content

  • What is measles
  • How is the treatment of measles
  • How is measles prevention



  • What is measles

    Measles - an acute infectious
    disease, occurring with a fever, krupnopyatnistoy rash on the body, with
    catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and
    respiratory tract.


    The causative agent of measles - a special virus that
    characterized by a pronounced almost wholly
    infectivity to man. Almost everyone, usually occurring in childhood
    aged, sick with measles. However, children up to three months do not get sick with measles, ie.
    a. they have saved for a while immunity (immunity) to
    measles, they passed the mother, in the past were ill with measles. The only
    source of infection with measles is sick of it. Measles is transmitted quickly - just short meeting with the patient, even in the presence of
    the next room to the child, without a history of measles, was infected.


    Infection
    is transmitted by airborne droplets (with a small spray of saliva,
    allocated by coughing, speaking). A patient is contagious from the first days
    disease before the onset of the rash, when he observed
    fever, runny nose, sneezing, coughing, etc., and all the time the rash.; after
    five days from the onset of the rash the patient already nezarazitelen. at
    complications (pneumonia) infectivity lasts longer
    (Measles, such patients are not infectious until after the 10th day from the date of
    rash).


    The measles virus really is unstable in the environment and quickly
    die outside the patient body. Therefore, special disinfection after measles is not
    required; sufficiently after the removal of the patient or his recovery
    thoroughly ventilate the room and carefully remove it. Across
    Child surrounding persons and things measles is usually not sent. Time
    an illness gives immunity (immunity) is usually on
    all life; repeated measles cases are extremely rare.

    Prevention and treatment of measles
    During measles distinguish four periods: incubation (latent) period - from the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease, usually
    10-11 days, in rare cases - up to 17 days. During this period, no explicit
    manifestations of the disease are not observed (although there are already some changes
    blood). Following the incubation period, developing period
    precursors (ie. is called. prodrome), which lasts for 3-5 days,
    before the rash appears. This period is characterized by increase in temperature
    (Up to 38-39), malaise, headache, poor sleep, loss
    appetite and inflammation (Qatar) mucous membranes - a runny nose, dry
    compulsive cough, conjunctivitis; gradually these effects are amplified:
    the face becomes puffy, swollen eyelids, red eyes,
    lacrimation, photophobia.


    The most
    an important feature of measles in this period are rash on the mucous
    shell cheeks against the lower molars - small whitish,
    towering above the surface of the point, surrounded by red rim, that is.
    called. Spot Filatov - Koplik - Belsky. They appear 2-3 days before
    rashes and skin rashes disappear in the first or second day of the rash.
    rashes period begins with the new temperature rise, gain
    painful symptoms and the rash appears (4-6 day from the beginning
    disease), first on the face - behind the ears, on the cheeks and forehead, and through
    a few hours around the face, especially abundant in the middle of the face (nose,
    chin, lips); The next day the rash covering the trunk, in the afternoon
    later - limbs.
    recovery period, or the period of pigmentation: rash bloom three elements
    days and begin to fade in the same order in which they spilled,
    partially turning into brownish spots. The skin becomes dry with
    small defurfuration on the face and trunk. Temperature
    decreases; improves the general condition of the child. However, in the period
    recovery of the child for a long time weakened him considerably
    decreased resistance to various diseases.


    Flow
    Measles can be easy and difficult. Severe measles is more likely among
    Children fed artificially (no breast milk) suffering
    rickets, debilitated serious illness (eg.,
    influenza) in children with tuberculosis and finally, the children of the first years
    life. The most common and dangerous complication of measles, especially for children
    early age and frail, is an inflammation of the lungs.


    How is the treatment of measles


    Treatment: specific therapeutic agents against measles is not. required
    hygienic and dietary regimen, careful care. must
    to create an environment at home, so that the disease is not easy and gave
    to complications. It is necessary to seek medical advice immediately. child must be
    put to bed; bed to put in the middle of the room to give
    child plenty of air and light (not to be curtain windows only
    putting the patient's head back to the light source). It is necessary to frequently ventilate
    room, wrapping up well with the child; in the room should not be
    hot (t ° 17-18 °). In the warm season should keep the windows open.
    All patient care is carried out as directed by the physician children's clinic,
    consultation.


    Important
    ensure hygienic skin care (baths, wet wiping,
    washing), mouth, nose, eyes, with plenty of food
    vitamins, drinking plenty of fluids and impeccable cleanliness. Perhaps the best
    conditions (clean air, sleep in the air, proper diet, vitamins and
    pr.) it is necessary to create a child and recovering from measles to strengthen
    his health, impaired disease.


    It is important to protect the patient from
    additional infection of some other disease (eg.,
    flu). When catarrhal symptoms in the respiratory tract is recommended
    to give drink alkaline water with milk, milk with soda. If it is impossible
    create the required conditions in the home environment, as well as in cases
    disease and morbidity especially in children's disease living
    in child care, in order to avoid the spread of infection, it is desirable
    place the sick in the hospital.

    How is measles prevention

    Prevention and treatment of measles
    Many parents knowing
    that the disease measles is inevitable, often comfortable with the
    possible infection of the child with measles. Meanwhile, measles is especially dangerous for
    children under the age of 3-4 years, as well as for impaired children other
    ages. Therefore, a child at an early age and debilitated children
    should be strongly protected against measles. Exclusively
    of great importance in this regard have measles vaccination -
    injection serum adult blood, suffered measles, or
    gamma globulin. This vaccination is carried out, as a rule, all children
    from 3 months to 4 years (especially children up to 2 years), not
    bolevshim measles and had contact with the patient during the measles
    catching her period, as well as sick children and recovering from
    any disease, irrespective of age and children with
    Tuberculosis. Timely vaccination carried out in most cases
    or protect against measles or facilitate its flow.
    Contraindications for the introduction of serum and gamma globulin no.


    Graft
    It succeeds if it is made a child soon after meeting with measles
    patients, and is only valid for one month. When a new meeting
    patients with measles vaccination thereafter repeated. It has a large
    the value of early diagnosis of measles, so that you can make
    children vaccinated as soon as possible, come into contact with measles.
    Therefore, once diagnosed with measles, parents should immediately
    report on child disease in nursery or kindergarten to
    there promptly made measles vaccination for children of the group,
    who visit a sick child. If the apartment is sick with measles,
    We must immediately notify the child or children's consultation on this
    Centre to immediately make a measles vaccination for children,
    living in this apartment, and without a history of measles.


    In the prevention of measles
    an important role is also played by the general control measures:
    timely isolation of cases (at home or in the hospital), prevention
    in groups and school children who have contact with measles patients and ne
    bolevshih measles, for 17 days from the date of last contact with the
    with measles (for unvaccinated children), and within 21 days for graft
    (Ie. A. Grafting in case of illness can extend period of incubation
    period).


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