Anal fissure (fissure) - is damage to the rectal mucosa at the site of the anal sphincter location.
In 90% of cases, the crack is located on the rear wall of the anal canal.
The most common causes of anal fissure are chronic constipation, mucosal injury foreign objects (eg bone from food), as well as anal sex.
The disease is very common. More than a third of patients are of working age; more often affects women (over 60% of all patients).
Contributing diseases include colitis,proctosigmoiditis, enterocolitis, haemorrhoids, etc. Almost 70% of patients with fracture combined with chronic diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, cholecystitis). At the same percent of patients have a combination of anal fissures and hemorrhoids.
The main symptoms of anal fissure:
- sharp pain during and after defecation;
- scanty bleeding during bowel movements (sometimes not always);
- spasm and tension of muscles in the anus (sphincter spasm).
Severe pain after stool is stored beforeseveral hours, leading to irritability, nervousness, sleep disturbance. Patients with anal fissures are afraid of going to the toilet and unknowingly delay chair, which leads to compaction of feces and further injury to the anus during defecation.
There are two forms of the disease, which are the stages of the process and have the clinical features: acute anal fissure and chronic anal fissure.
In acute fracture pain is distinctThree-phase: short-term pain at the time of defecation, which is sometimes accompanied by a slight bleeding; followed by a rest period, which lasts a few minutes and, finally, intense spastic pain for many hours. In most cases acute anal fissures are cured by conservative methods. After 3-4 weeks in the absence of timely treatment of the disease becomes chronic. Chronic anal fissure is different when viewed from an acute: the edge of the crack thicken, there is a rough scar tissue at the distal edge of the scar tissue forms a "watchdog hump."
Pain in chronic anal fissure occurusually after defecation They are less intense or absent. Spotting and spasm of the sphincter preserved. Can join itching and maceration in the perianal region.
In the absence of self-treatmenthealing does not occur. The area of the crack increases, its edges are sealed, formed non-healing ulcers (chronic anal fissure), which manifests itself excruciating pain and constipation. In the treatment in the early stages of the onset of the disease - recovery will be much faster and can be life conducted on an outpatient basis (without hospitalization). In each case, your treatment regimen should be discussed with your doctor.