Phobia - is overpowering, obsessive fearsome object or situation. As a rule, this fear is accompanied by a strong desire to avoid what you fear, and this in turn can interfere with a variety of activities.
There are three types of phobias:
Specific. This fear of specific objects or situations: enclosed spaces, animals (mostly spiders, snakes or mice), height, travel by plane, water, storms, dentists, tunnels, bridges, and more.
Social. People suffering from social phobia, fear of condemnation and negative
assessment on the part of others, afraid to look ridiculous in the eyes of others (the fear of speaking in public).
Shyness and social phobia - not thesame. Shy people may feel uncomfortable in the company of others, but they are not worried about two weeks before the show, and do not try to avoid the appearance of humans. At the same time, people with social phobia may not be skromnyaga - they are superb at communicating with other people, except in certain situations.
Agoraphobia. This fear can be triggered by onean episode of sudden panic. A person suffering from agoraphobia, panic can occur at any time for no apparent reason. Despite the fact that the panic lasts about a minute, the memory of these feelings so strong that the possibility of a repetition begins to scare. For this reason, people with agoraphobia avoid the places where they will not be able to get out in case of a new attack.
Causes of phobias
Studies confirm that a phobia - it is a complex interaction of heredity and environment. However, there are the following main reasons:
1. A series of unpleasant episodes for a long time.
If you are repeatedly found themselves in similarunpleasant situations, over time you can begin to be afraid of a negative outcome. Several negative episodes in the school gym class - and even after many years, you may not want to get up on skis.
2. Fear of suggestions from outside.
This phobia determine the cause of the easiest,because the fear imposed from outside. For example, if your mom screaming jumps on a chair, he saw a tiny mouse, chances are you'll do the same. So you took over the fear of the person who was your role model. And it can be any person with whom you are in close contact - a friend, a neighbor or even a stranger.
3.Sereznaya injury in the past.
If you have experienced in the past, strong emotions, itIt may give rise to an inexplicable fear of that very situation, object, person or place that originally caused your fear. You can know the cause of your fear, or it can be hidden in the depths of the subconscious. In many cases, the fear is suppressed.
If for some reason you do not want to sharetheir problems with outsiders, try to help yourself. Understand that your fear - it's just a habit. At some point in your life did you learn to respond to the stimulus. Although this habit gives you a lot of trouble, you can get rid of it.
To do this, you need to understand how this is happening to you. Of course, you're afraid of not on purpose, but you do it, even automatically. This is your brain, your body and your emotions.
1. Disassemble your fear into components.
Once you see the stimulus, you makea number of specific actions. How does this happen? Consider an example. You are afraid to go down the stairs. As soon as you have to do it, you see a ladder, remember past unpleasant moments in a similar situation (you've already fallen for yourself or a friend were injured, down in the subway, or you've seen this episode on TV), is starting to cheat by presenting, as the foot podvorachivaetsja, breaks a heel and you're in slow motion roll head over heels down. Pictures accelerated - faster and faster ... Your video and thoughts about the disaster response force your body - tremors, rapid pulse, etc. And all the -.. You have bad.
2. Locate the stimuli.
The next step - to understand at what point youYou start to think about the bad. This is it - the stimulus - launches the mechanism of fear, forcing you to anticipate disaster. Irritant - This is not what you feel. This sight, sound, smell or taste. If you are afraid to drive or walk across the bridge, the stimulus can be the bridge itself, or even thinking about the upcoming trip across the bridge. Stimuli can be several.
3. Analyze the fear and its consequences.
Take four sheets of paper. In the first write a list of situations that may trigger your fear. On the second - make a list of their feelings, physiological reactions that can increase your excitement. On the third sheet will record the worst-case scenario - that is, if you lose control of himself.
For example, if you are afraid to fly on an airplane, you can write the following:
thoughts about the upcoming flight
order plane tickets
a trip to the airport
trembling in the legs
nervousness and tremor will be visible to others
I can not sit still
I start to cry.
The fourth list, store the most exciting moments of the previous three, in descending order (depending on your attitude - that makes more nervous that - less).
4. Learn to relax.
Lie down on the couch or sit in a comfortable chair,turn on meditative music, close your eyes and relax your queue all parts of your body, starting with the heels. Pay attention to what you are at this point you can see, hear and feel. Staying relaxed, imagine the situation recorded in the fourth leaf. Start with the most harmless. This will make you a little tense. Try to relax as much as possible. Once you learn to stay relaxed, representing the most minor situation, go to the next step. But do not rush - one list item per day, according to psychologists, it is more than enough. Also, do not move on to the next step until you are nervous, thinking about the previous.
Thus, you gradually learncope with fear. Of course, such exercises are more effective under the guidance of a specialist, but if you feel the strength - try it yourself. This process requires patience and takes several weeks or even months.
There are many ways to deal with fear. Master of suspense Alfred Hitchcock got rid of their fears, taking them movies. Seneca the Elder advised: "Take away the confusion of its cause, look at the case itself - and you make sure that any of them there is nothing wrong, but fear itself." And Aesop wisely remarked: "Even the fear wears off the habit."
Do not be afraid to deal with his fear.