How to treat emphysema
The main activities focus on the fight against respiratory
failure and treatment of the underlying disease that caused the development of
Quitting smoking is an extremely important event. It
It must occupy the first place in the treatment of this pathology. Wherein
you must keep in mind the following: a one-time smoking cessation
It has a greater effect than a gradual reduction in the amount smoked
cigarettes; high motivation of quitting smoking is the main
a critical success factor; chewing gum and transdermal
applicators containing nicotine, can help reduce the craving for smoking,
especially if they are applied in a complex of measures aimed at
to give up smoking.
During exacerbation of chronic inflammatory process in the lungs
prescribe antibiotics, if bronhospasticheskogo
syndrome, develops as a result of narrowing of the lumen of small bronchi and bronchioles - Bronchodilators (drugs that cause expansion and removal lumen bronchospasm). The main groups
bronchodilator drugs are anticholinergic agents
(Atrovent, Flomax), theophylline (teopek, teotard, aminophylline and others.)
beta-2 sympathomimetics (salbutamol berotek). Selection and amount of drug
therapy depends on the degree of disease severity.
To improve expectorate sputum discharge prescribed drugs.
With the development of respiratory failure is used breathing
gymnastics, which helps to improve lung ventilation, gas exchange.
In chronic respiratory failure I of a degree with success
hypoxytherapy applied. The patient breathes with atmospheric air
reduced (up to 11-12%) oxygen for 5 minutes and
5 minutes then breathes atmospheric air with normal
oxygen. In a single session performed 6 such cycles. Each
1 day hold a session. The course of treatment lasts 15-20 days.
If you have severe respiratory failure is carried out
malopotochnuyu prolonged oxygen therapy. The source
Oxygen is used in the home with the compressed oxygen bottles
or hub, portable devices for producing oxygen from
room air. The duration of oxygen therapy malopotochnoy
is not less than 18 hours per day. If unable to perform
malopotochnoy oxygen therapy conducted inhalation of humidified
oxygen through nasal catheters.
Sometimes use auxiliary mechanical ventilation with
respirators using any type of adjustable volume, or frequency of
In order to correct respiratory failure also applies
aeroionotherapy. She made 1 session per day, a course of treatment
It lasts 15-20 days.
With long-term narrowing of the airways - the voltage rise
all respiratory muscles become chronic. fatigue treatment
respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, is an important addition to
the use of drugs for the treatment of emphysema.
Widely used various training to ensure normal
operation of muscles. Therapeutic exercises, aimed at reducing
muscle tone and improve bronchial patency, gives the best
the effect of bronchial obstruction (difficulty in breathing).
The most simple, but very important exercise is to train
respiration by establishing positive end-expiratory pressure.
Perform these exercises are simple. You can use non-corrugated
hoses of different lengths, through which the patient breathes, and create
install a water trap (bank filled with water). After enough
deep breath should breathe as slowly as possible through the hose in
jar filled with water.
To improve the drainage function using special drainage positions and exercises with extended exhalation forced.
The position (postural) drainage - is the use of certain
position of the body for better expectoration. Position drain
performed in patients with chronic bronchitis (especially in purulent
forms) while reducing the cough reflex or too viscous sputum. is he
also it recommended after endotracheal infusion or injection
It is performed 2 times a day (morning and evening, but it is possible and more often) after
preliminary reception bronchodilators and expectorants
(Usually infusion Thermopsis, mother and stepmother, rosemary, plantain) and
lime and hot tea. After 20-30 minutes after the patient
alternately takes the position that maximizes emptying
Sputum from certain segments of the lung due to gravity and to the draining of the cough phlegm reflexogenic zones. In each position
the patient performs the first 4-5 slow deep breaths,
breathing in through your nose and exhaling through pursed lips. then, after
slow deep breath produces 3-, 4-fold shallow
cough 4-5 times. A good result is achieved with a combination of
drainage positions with various methods of vibration chest
drained segments or compression arms on the exhale, massage,
that performed quite vigorously.
Postural drainage is contraindicated in the event of hemoptysis, and shortness of breath during a large attack or procedure