Osteoarthritis - degenerative - dystrophicdisease that occurs as a result of destruction of the cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones epiphysis forming joint. The pathological process involved not only gradually cartilage, but also all joint tissues, including synovium, subchondral bone, articular capsule, ligaments, muscles and joints retaining causing it to move. a joint disease leads to increase of the load on the other, thus creating conditions for the development of osteoarthritis at other sites.
Diagnosis deforming osteoarthritis include:
- Analysis of clinical symptoms;
- general and biochemical blood tests;
- computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging;
- sonography (ultrasound joint);
- arthroscopy, biopsy and biochemical study of synovial fluid.
other methods may be supplemented, if necessary examination.
Osteoarthritis 1 degree may be asymptomatic,possible only some fatigue limbs. However, on closer examination, signs of joint metabolism in tissues can be detected by biochemical analysis of arthroscopy and synovial fluid already at this stage of the disease. These disorders are the cause of degeneration of cartilage and lead to the loss of their ability to withstand the usual loads.
Osteoarthritis 2 degrees, characterized by destructionarticular cartilage and osteophyte formation, has significant clinical symptoms. Typically, the emergence of "starting pains» and stiffness. Joint pain is amplified by the end of the day, but it goes away after a long rest. Manifestation of arthrosis of 2 degrees is a crunch in joints, their initial deformation and thickening due to proliferation of marginal osteophytes. Involvement in the ligamentous apparatus of the process on the one hand leads to abnormal joint mobility, with another - leads to a limitation of motion.
An indication of the third stage of osteoarthritis, unlikearthrosis of February 1st degree, is pronounced deformation of the joint and the resulting change in her limbs axis. The reasons lie in the distortion of the shape of the joint reference platforms as a result of the destruction of cartilage and degenerative changes in the bones forming the joint. Restricting the mobility of the joint reaches the maximum. There contracture and ankylosis, depriving the patient the possibility of independent movement without the use of crutches or a cane.
The basic criteria by which diagnosed osteoarthritis, stage of development and the degree - is radiological evidence of degenerative joint and structural changes.
Radiographic signs of osteoarthritis
- The narrowing of the joint space - evidence of significant changes in the articular cartilage and weakening of ligaments, bone joint holding.
- Osteophytes occur as a result of the proliferationmarginal parts of the articular cartilage, subchondral bone as a reaction plate to increase the load. Osteophytes first appear as small bony teeth along the edges of the articular surfaces, and then they grow, turn on the lips, and the thorns, deforming the joint.
- Changes in bone epiphyses begin withsclerosis, zapustevaniya blood vessels and connective tissue replacement of the bone marrow, visible on X-ray as the illumination area. Violation of circulation in this area systematically leads to atrophy of bone tissue and the appearance of it, in the subchondral area, cysts that appear in the image as a black rounded education.
- joint subluxation manifests instability, changes in limb axis.
Deforming arthrosis of first degree onradiograph looks like a small joint space narrowing and a small seal (sclerosis) of bone in the adjoining area of the cartilage. Change is small and for a more accurate diagnosis requires further study.
Changes in the joint depends on the load onit. Deforming arthrosis of the knee joint of 1 degree at this stage it is characterized by the development of compensatory and adaptive processes in the bone and the marginal bone growths (osteophytes).
Radiographic signs of osteoarthritis of the second degree - marked joint space narrowing, osteophytes, subchondral osteosclerosis.
The fact that arthrosis "grown" from 2 degrees to reachThird, according to the almost complete absence of joint space, subchondral sclerosis and distinct appearance of cysts in the epiphysis of bones, joint deformity and distortion of the normal axis of the limb.