Rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosis

Content

  • What causes rheumatoid arthritis?
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • As rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed?
  • Laboratory diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
  • Instrumental methods of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
  • Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis



  • Rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic disease, it has gradually
    progressive course, sometimes interrupted by remissions (periods
    temporary improvement).

    Inflammation of the joint
    it is characterized by swelling, tenderness, and sometimes the appearance
    redness. As already mentioned, in rheumatoid arthritis may
    inflame and periarticular tissues - ligaments and muscles.

    Chronic
    joint inflammation results in destruction of articular cartilage and
    appearance of deformities, which, in turn, gives him
    function - there is pain and stiffness when driving.

    rheumatoid
    Arthritis is a fairly common disease, in Russia they
    It affects about 1 million people. Women suffer more often than men. Disease
    It can begin at any age, but usually debuts between 40-60 years
    life.



    what

    causes rheumatoid arthritis?

    The etiology (cause) of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. The suspect genetic,
    infectious agents, environmental effects, etc. as an example.
    It demonstrated that smoking increases the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.



    Rheumatoid arthritis

    Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may come and go in
    Depending on the stage of the disease. Stage subsided inflammation (and
    reduce the severity of symptoms and improve patient well-being)
    It called remission. Remission can occur itself or under
    influence of treatment and continue for several weeks or even months
    years. When remission stops increasing disease activity, and
    health of patients deteriorates again - this period is called
    aggravation.

    Rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosis
    During exacerbation of patients experience
    weakness, loss of appetite, fever, muscle and joint
    pain and stiffness of the joints. Stiffness of the joints most commonly
    pronounced in the morning or after periods of rest. The defeat of the joints called
    arthritis. The joints become painful and swollen. In rheumatoid
    Arthritis is characterized by symmetrical lesion of the small joints of the hands and
    Stop. Less common major joint isolated defeat on
    one side - in these cases, difficulties may arise in
    diagnosis, because this character is more common arthritis
    gout or an infectious inflammation of the joints. Described rare cases
    defeat the so-called krikoaretenovidnyh joints that pull
    vocal cords. In these patients developed hoarseness.

    how
    already mentioned, rheumatoid arthritis - a systemic disease, so
    many organs may suffer. Inflammation of the eyes and mucous glands of the mouth
    It leads to dryness of the bodies - Sjogren syndrome.
    Rheumatoid inflammation of the lung membrane (pleura) and is called a pleural effusion
    characterized by pain in the chest when breathing or coughing. Sami too light
    may be subject to inflammation, they formed rheumatoid nodules.
    When inflammation of the heart membrane - pericarditis - patients complain
    chest pain, which usually decreases when tilted forward,
    enhanced supine. Chronic inflammation of rheumatoid
    Arthritis can lead to a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood - Development
    anemia. It may also be observed reduction in the number of white blood cells (which leads to
    increased risk of infectious diseases). If thus there are still
    enlargement of the spleen, a condition called Felty's syndrome.
    Rheumatoid subcutaneous nodules often form on the elbows and around
    fingers, but can occur elsewhere. Rheumatoid nodules themselves
    They do not cause symptoms, but they sometimes develop secondary
    infectious inflammation. Rare serious complication of rheumatoid
    It is arthritis vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels). Vasculitis breaks
    the blood supply to organs and tissues, most commonly manifested vasculitis
    formation of dark necrotic areas and ulcers on the fingers and on the
    feet.



    As rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed?

    When the above-described or similar complaints, it is necessary to come to the reception to
    physician specializing in the disease - to a rheumatologist. Doctor
    asks the patient in detail about the complaints, the time of their occurrence,
    prior diseases, etc., and then examines the joints,
    skin and other organs and systems. Thereafter assigned a
    range of analyzes, including the so-called "Revmoproby" to confirm the diagnosis
    and determining the extent of disease activity. In some cases
    radiography and other research methods.



    Laboratory diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    In blood, 80% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis the specific detected
    antibodies - rheumatoid factor. Availability / places without rheumatoid factor
    important not only for diagnosis, but also for disease prognosis.



    Instrumental methods of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    X-ray
    picture of rheumatoid arthritis can not show any changes in the
    early stage disease. With the progression of the disease on
    radiographs, typical for rheumatoid arthritis erosion
    joints. X-rays are commonly used to monitor the progress
    disease.

    Puncture (puncture) of the joints called
    artrotsentez. With the help of a needle and syringe pumps rheumatologist articular
    liquid which then otparvlyayut to a laboratory for analysis. Artrotsentez
    is used for diagnosis (for example, when it is necessary to distinguish
    rheumatoid arthritis from other types of arthritis), and for therapeutic purposes
    (Removal of excess liquid from the joint with inflammation,
    introduction joint inflammatory drugs).



    Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    fully
    rheumatoid arthritis can not be cured. Modern methods of treatment
    are intended to reduce inflammation, improve joint function and
    prevent disability patients. Earlier initiation of treatment improves
    forecast. Optimal treatment includes not only pharmacological
    therapy and exercise therapy, lifestyle changes, and other
    Events.

    In the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
    It uses two types of drugs: anti-inflammatory, or
    fast-acting drugs "first-line" and delayed
    prparaty "second line" (also called disease-modifying or
    basic drugs). The first group of drugs include aspirin,
    hormones (corticosteroids), which reduce inflammation and relieve pain.
    DMARDs (eg methotrexate) induce remission (osdablenie) and
    prevent or slow the destruction of the joints, but are not
    anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Surgical treatment is used to correct deformities of the joints expressed.

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