Rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic disease, it has gradually
progressive course, sometimes interrupted by remissions (periods
Inflammation of the joint
it is characterized by swelling, tenderness, and sometimes the appearance
redness. As already mentioned, in rheumatoid arthritis may
inflame and periarticular tissues - ligaments and muscles.
joint inflammation results in destruction of articular cartilage and
appearance of deformities, which, in turn, gives him
function - there is pain and stiffness when driving.
Arthritis is a fairly common disease, in Russia they
It affects about 1 million people. Women suffer more often than men. Disease
It can begin at any age, but usually debuts between 40-60 years
causes rheumatoid arthritis?
The etiology (cause) of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. The suspect genetic,
infectious agents, environmental effects, etc. as an example.
It demonstrated that smoking increases the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may come and go in
Depending on the stage of the disease. Stage subsided inflammation (and
reduce the severity of symptoms and improve patient well-being)
It called remission. Remission can occur itself or under
influence of treatment and continue for several weeks or even months
years. When remission stops increasing disease activity, and
health of patients deteriorates again - this period is called
During exacerbation of patients experience
weakness, loss of appetite, fever, muscle and joint
pain and stiffness of the joints. Stiffness of the joints most commonly
pronounced in the morning or after periods of rest. The defeat of the joints called
arthritis. The joints become painful and swollen. In rheumatoid
Arthritis is characterized by symmetrical lesion of the small joints of the hands and
Stop. Less common major joint isolated defeat on
one side - in these cases, difficulties may arise in
diagnosis, because this character is more common arthritis
gout or an infectious inflammation of the joints. Described rare cases
defeat the so-called krikoaretenovidnyh joints that pull
vocal cords. In these patients developed hoarseness.
already mentioned, rheumatoid arthritis - a systemic disease, so
many organs may suffer. Inflammation of the eyes and mucous glands of the mouth
It leads to dryness of the bodies - Sjogren syndrome.
Rheumatoid inflammation of the lung membrane (pleura) and is called a pleural effusion
characterized by pain in the chest when breathing or coughing. Sami too light
may be subject to inflammation, they formed rheumatoid nodules.
When inflammation of the heart membrane - pericarditis - patients complain
chest pain, which usually decreases when tilted forward,
enhanced supine. Chronic inflammation of rheumatoid
Arthritis can lead to a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood - Development
anemia. It may also be observed reduction in the number of white blood cells (which leads to
increased risk of infectious diseases). If thus there are still
enlargement of the spleen, a condition called Felty's syndrome.
Rheumatoid subcutaneous nodules often form on the elbows and around
fingers, but can occur elsewhere. Rheumatoid nodules themselves
They do not cause symptoms, but they sometimes develop secondary
infectious inflammation. Rare serious complication of rheumatoid
It is arthritis vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels). Vasculitis breaks
the blood supply to organs and tissues, most commonly manifested vasculitis
formation of dark necrotic areas and ulcers on the fingers and on the
As rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed?
When the above-described or similar complaints, it is necessary to come to the reception to
physician specializing in the disease - to a rheumatologist. Doctor
asks the patient in detail about the complaints, the time of their occurrence,
prior diseases, etc., and then examines the joints,
skin and other organs and systems. Thereafter assigned a
range of analyzes, including the so-called "Revmoproby" to confirm the diagnosis
and determining the extent of disease activity. In some cases
radiography and other research methods.
Laboratory diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
In blood, 80% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis the specific detected
antibodies - rheumatoid factor. Availability / places without rheumatoid factor
important not only for diagnosis, but also for disease prognosis.
Instrumental methods of diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
picture of rheumatoid arthritis can not show any changes in the
early stage disease. With the progression of the disease on
radiographs, typical for rheumatoid arthritis erosion
joints. X-rays are commonly used to monitor the progress
Puncture (puncture) of the joints called
artrotsentez. With the help of a needle and syringe pumps rheumatologist articular
liquid which then otparvlyayut to a laboratory for analysis. Artrotsentez
is used for diagnosis (for example, when it is necessary to distinguish
rheumatoid arthritis from other types of arthritis), and for therapeutic purposes
(Removal of excess liquid from the joint with inflammation,
introduction joint inflammatory drugs).
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis can not be cured. Modern methods of treatment
are intended to reduce inflammation, improve joint function and
prevent disability patients. Earlier initiation of treatment improves
forecast. Optimal treatment includes not only pharmacological
therapy and exercise therapy, lifestyle changes, and other
In the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
It uses two types of drugs: anti-inflammatory, or
fast-acting drugs "first-line" and delayed
prparaty "second line" (also called disease-modifying or
basic drugs). The first group of drugs include aspirin,
hormones (corticosteroids), which reduce inflammation and relieve pain.
DMARDs (eg methotrexate) induce remission (osdablenie) and
prevent or slow the destruction of the joints, but are not
Surgical treatment is used to correct deformities of the joints expressed.