Scleroderma - is one of the major diseases of the connective tissue (connective tissue), characterized by its seal (sclerosis), mainly on the skin.
Types of scleroderma
Localized scleroderma (limited). This form of scleroderma occurs relativelybenign. The development of the disease, there are three stages: swelling of the skin, its compaction and hardening, and then atrophy and pigmentation. There is a lesion (plaque nature) is most often on the trunk, rarely on the limbs. Typically the formation of sharply limited pinkish cyanotic (purplish red) round or oval spots the size of a palm, which fairly quickly transformed into a very dense (woody) plaque with a shiny, smooth surface, resembling ivory (yellowish-white). Plaques in the growth process are surrounded by a purple ring, the hair falls out. After months or years, they gradually soften and turn into areas of scar atrophy white. Limited form can sometimes take the form of stripes (Blends Ribbon scleroderma).
Generalized scleroderma. The initial symptoms of this form of coolingfingers, reducing their sensitivity and bluish color. After many months of sclerotic skin becomes thick, like a tree, smooth, shiny, stationary. On its surface often occur sores. In 2-3 years, in the process involves the facial skin. A person acquires a mask-like appearance.
Mouth tapers, thinning of the cartilage in the nose, taking the shape of the coracoid. It affects the internal organs, progressively worsening condition of the patient.
When treating explores eliminate pocketschronic infections, where sensitization occurs (infection) of the body. Suitable antibiotics penicillin and drugs gialuroindazy (lipase ronidaza, vitreous). Use vitamins and drugs that can expand peripheral vessels (komplamin, nicotinic acid). It marked beneficial effect on the purpose of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), hyperbaric oxygenation. The sealing step is used physiotherapy: ultrasound, massage, baths, mud therapy, physiotherapy, etc. Children with scleroderma should be under medical observation pediatrician, dermatologist and a neurologist. Prevention consists in treating seborrhea, proper skin care.
Scleroderma system. Chronic disease of the connective tissue system and small vessels with a common skin disease (multiple sclerosis, fibrosis), connective tissue bases of internal organs.
The cause is unknown. It provokes cooling, trauma, infection, vaccination, etc. What matters is family and genetic predisposition. Women suffer 3 times more often than men.
Disease history: systemic scleroderma usually begins with Raynaud's syndrome, joint pain, weight loss, fever, weakness, fatigue. The most characteristic feature - the skin lesion. First, there is widespread dense swelling in the future - and seal skin atrophy, especially expressed on the face and extremities. There may be ulceration and abscesses on their fingertips, nonhealing, very painful.
Deforms the nails, hair fall out untilbaldness. Painful induration, and then muscle atrophy is accompanied by gross tendon changes: they are shortened, which leads to the development of contractures infringing activities of various joints. In them there are pains, they are deformed. X-ray examination revealed destruction of the terminal, and in severe cases, and middle phalanges of hands, feet less. The subcutaneous fat thickness can be deposited calcium lumps. The disease affects the cardiovascular system. There are pain in the heart, shortness of breath, a variety of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction.
When the immune vascular inflammation may occurgangrene, thrombophlebitis with trophic ulcers on the feet, legs, etc. There may be severe lesions of internal organs: lungs - pulmonary fibrosis, kidney - "scleroderma kidney", diffuse glomerulonephritis.. Especially characteristic violation of passage of food through the esophagus, its expansion, to identify X-ray examination.
The defeat of the nervous system is manifestedpolyneuritis, autonomic instability (violation of sweating, thermoregulation), emotional (irritability, tearfulness and suspiciousness), insomnia. In rare cases, encephalitis occurs and psychosis.
There are acute, subacute and chronic disease. Changes in the blood of non-specific. Reduced hemoglobin level may increase white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
The diagnosis is confirmed by detection of specific changes in the immunological status and skin biopsy.
Systemic scleroderma is the responsibility ofrheumatologists. large doses of glucocorticoids (prednisone) is used for the treatment of systemic sclerosis, as well as D-penicillamine, kuprenil, delagil. For the treatment of Raynaud's syndrome - nifedipine (Corinfar, kordafen, foridon). Needed symptomatic therapy: lidasa, B vitamins, vasodilators, physiotherapy (coniferous, radon, hydrogen sulfide baths, mud baths, paraffin, etc.), physiotherapy, massage.