Osteoarthritis - a very common diseasejoints, which affects about 80% of Russia's population aged 50-60 years. In many cases, the first symptoms of osteoarthritis marked much earlier: already at 30-40 year olds.
As is known, it formed a joint articularbone surfaces covered with cartilage. In osteoarthritis, primarily affected articular cartilage. In various movements suspension cartilage plays a role, by reducing the pressure on the mating surfaces of the bones and allowing easy sliding relative to each other. Cartilage consists of fibers loosely arranged in a matrix.
Matrix - a jelly-like substance,formed special connections - glycosaminoglycans. Due to the matrix made of cartilage nutrition and recovery of damaged fibers. This structure makes the cartilage similar to a sponge - in a quiet condition it absorbs liquid and squeezes it into the joint cavity under load, providing a kind of "lubricant" of the joint.
During the life of the cartilage flexibility to respond tostereotyped, thousands of times repeated load that occurs when certain types of work, running, jumping, etc. This causes a constant load to aging and destruction of part of the fibers, which is filled in a healthy joint formation of the same number of new fibers.
Osteoarthritis develops in disequilibriumbetween the formation of a new building material for cartilage repair tissue and destruction. As a result, there is less valuable kind of cartilage structure, able to absorb smaller amounts of water. The cartilage becomes more dry, brittle, and in response to the load it is easily digested fiber.
As the progression of osteoarthritis, the cartilage layer,covering the joint surfaces becomes thinner until complete destruction. Together with cartilage and bone changes underneath. On the edges of the joint formed bony growths, as if compensating for the loss of cartilage due to the increase of the articular surfaces. This causes deformation of joints in osteoarthritis. Typically, such a state is called "salt deposits", which is simply a non-medical called osteoarthritis.
There is no single cause, leading to the development ofthe disease, apparently does not exist. It matters several factors anyway attenuating cartilage, which adverse effects on lifetime summed and eventually leads to the development of osteoarthritis. Onset of the disease in this situation can be described as an adverse set of circumstances, with each person the circumstances are different. Nevertheless, there are several factors whose presence increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis.
To promote the development of osteoarthritis may be strongcross-sectional injury, accompanied by injury, fracture, dislocation, ligament damage to the joint unit, or repetitive joint Microfracture. Microfracture is a cause of osteoarthritis in representatives of a number of professions. An example is the development of osteoarthritis of the knee miners, football players; arthrosis of the elbow and shoulder joints in people working with a jackhammer; arthrosis of small joints of hands-in-typists clerks, weavers; arthritic ankle joints from the dancers; arthritis hands joints in boxers, etc.
Any metabolic, endocrinedisorders contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is more common in obese people, diabetics, people with thyroid disease in women in menopause. Various disorders of blood circulation in the extremities, such as varicose veins, atherosclerosis, can also trigger the development of osteoarthritis.
It is proved that a predisposition to certain forms of osteoarthritis with a lesion of many joints inherited. Women whose mothers suffered from this form of osteoarthritis, the risk of developing elevated.
Currently, much attention is paid toconnective tissue dysplasia syndrome. It is a congenital weakness of the connective tissue that makes up a large part of our body. It manifests excess mobility of the joints, early development of osteoarthritis, flat-footed. When not observing certain motor mode, this condition can lead to the development of osteoarthritis in a young age. Another fairly common congenital anomaly - complete or incomplete dislocation of the hip (which is why conducted preventive examinations of newborns immediately after birth), which, if properly vpravlen or incorrectly treated, leads with age to severe osteoarthritis of the hip joint.
With age, the cartilage becomes less elastic andIt loses its resistance to load. This does not mean that all the people in the old age develops arthritis. But in the presence of other predisposing factors, with age, your risk increases.