What is psoriasis?
The name of the disease, "psoriasis" comes fromthe Greek word "psora" meaning "itch." Psoriasis affects the mucous membranes of the skin and joints. Psoriasis is one of the most common skin diseases that are sick at any age. However, about 70 percent of patients with psoriasis sick up to 20 years.
The cause of psoriasis is unclear. The most common virus, neurogenic, hereditary, exchange theory of the origin of psoriasis. But none of the existing hypotheses about the occurrence of psoriasis did not become generally accepted.
Scientific studies in recent years showthat the basis of psoriasis is a complex interacting factors, but the fact of hereditary predisposition is undeniable. If psoriasis suffers one of the parents, the risk of a child is 25% if both parents are sick - 65%.
In psoriasis, in certain areas of the body, the upper skin layer dies much faster than normal. When psoraase this process is only 4-5 days and typically cycle division and maturation of the skin cells occurs in 25-30 days.
The important development of psoriasis are trigger factors that trigger disease onset:
injury (any damage to the skin);
infectious diseases (flu, sore throat);
response to drugs;
alcohol and others.
Acute psoriasis, generally in winter. At the beginning of the disease psoriasis, in most cases, the rash is limited and is represented by single plaques in places favored localization (scalp, extensor surface of the elbow, the knee, the sacrum, and others.).
Psoriatic skin plaques, clearlydistinguished from healthy skin, bright pink or deep red, covered by loose silvery white scales. Rashes are usually accompanied by peeling and painful itching. Symptoms of psoriasis weaken in summer, under the influence of sunlight, but in some patients, disappear altogether.
A characteristic feature of psoriasis is calledKoebner phenomenon - is when the psoriasis appears at the site of injury or scratches. In psoriasis may suffer not only the skin. Sometimes, the process involved and joints. It is developing the so-called psoriatic arthropathy (or psoriatic arthritis).
Diagnosis of psoriasis
Diagnosis of psoriasis, with typical clinicalpicture, is not difficult. Typical psoriatic triad (stearin spots symptom terminal film, point of bleeding). Known difficulties is the differential diagnosis artropaticheskom with rheumatoid arthritis, particularly in the absence of skin lesions.
The correct diagnosis of psoriasis maycontribute to indicate the presence of his relatives. To clarify the diagnosis of psoriasis may require a skin biopsy. Psoriasis has the following clinical forms:
plaque psoriasis (the most commonform of psoriasis) - manifested in the form of scattered, towering above the surface of the skin, scaly plaques, which are located on the elbows, knees, scalp;
psoriasis of the scalp - accompaniedrash in hair growth zone, often accompanied by itching. Sometimes there is a strong peeling, which patients mistakenly regard as normal dandruff;
guttate psoriasis - characterized by numerous small, scattered all over the skin, rashes, scaly and often develops in young people;
Nail psoriasis - is very common, can be accompanied by a rash on the skin;
psoriasis skin folds - armpits affected, inguinal folds and anogenital region;
psoriasis of palms and soles;
psoriatic erythroderma (merger rashes inlarge pockets of bright red color that occupy almost the entire skin). The skin is tightened, rough, infiltrated, red color, with abundant peeling on the surface. In this form of psoriasis increased peripheral lymph nodes, there is a temperature change observed in the blood (leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Development erythroderma promotes irrational, irritating therapy in the progressive stage of psoriasis;
artropaticheskom (inflammatoryjoint disease, usually affects the small joints of the hands and feet). Skin symptoms occur to articulate, but some patients joints are affected in the first place, and sometimes there is a joint disease without cutaneous manifestations. It is a serious illness that can lead to joint deformity, limitation of motion and therefore requires treatment by a dermatologist, not only, but also at the rheumatologist;
exudative psoriasis - often develops inpatients with diabetes and is characterized by severe swelling and brightness of psoriatic plaques, form on the surface of the scaly crusts of yellowish color due to the impregnation of exudate.
treatment of psoriasis
There is no means to complete treatmentpsoriasis, but there are many medications and treatments that can reduce and control the psoriasis, often for quite long periods of time. Psoriasis itself may come and go, often with long periods of remission. In most cases, however, psoriasis constant.
Psoriasis Treatment long, often requiresindividual selection of therapy for a particular patient, because not all drugs are equally effective in all patients. In the lungs, the limited forms of psoriasis enough local external therapy in the form of softening ointments.
Severe forms of the disease require an integratedsystemic treatment with detoxification, desensitizing, anti-inflammatory drugs of different groups, physiotherapy therapies, drugs and other external. In psoriasis need to constant surveillance dermatologist and systematic treatment. In recent years, for the treatment of psoriasis is widely used photochemotherapy, hemosorption, plasmapheresis.
Promising treatments for psoriasis. Now there are significant improvement of methods of treatment of psoriasis. In addition to the traditional patterns and techniques developed active efferent methods based on detoxifying and immunocorrecting effects.
Due to the recessed virologicalstudies expand the indications for antibiotic complex with antiviral agents. Narrowed the indications for use in psoriasis and tsitostatinov immunosuprassivnyh drugs. Be careful and restrained appointed corticosteroid hormones length the general treatment of psoriasis and is limited to their local application.
In the first years after the introduction ofcorticosteroids revealed their negative properties. By reducing the dose and elimination of the drug is almost always and very quickly a relapse occurs. For relief of acute significant increase in the dose is required, accompanied by the complications and side effects. Of particular note is that in patients treated with corticosteroids rapidly advancing relapses resistant to other forms of psoriasis therapy.
With application of corticosteroid hormonesassociate the frequent cases of severe course of pustular psoriasis. Based on the data obtained in the study photochemotherapy results, it was revealed that this method is one of the most effective in psoriasis.
Patients with psoriasis must constantlyconsult your doctor, to receive maintenance therapy in the winter and early spring, a diet with limited animal fats and carbohydrates, to exclude sharp dishes, spices, alcohol.
In psoriasis shown spa treatment -hydrogen sulfide and radon sources (Matsesta, Tskhaltubo, etc.), sunbathing and sea bathing (the Dead Sea - Jordan, Israel, Red Sea - Egypt), the treatment of psoriasis fish (Kangal, Turkey). Of great importance in the prevention of psoriasis is and hardening of the body, increasing mobility, mobility in the form of physiotherapy or as a sport.