Supernumerary teeth, or giperdontiya - one of theanomalies inherently deterministic number of teeth is quite common now. About 2-3% of patients with developmental anomalies of dental system are extra teeth, in addition to milk 20 or 32 units of permanent dentition. The nature of this disease is not completely understood, it is believed that its occurrence is associated with impaired tab teeth, or rather, with the violation mechanism cleavage dental plate, resulting in a greater than normal amount of tooth germs.
Supernumerary teeth can be detected in children in the dairy bite, but more often they are detected after the change of teeth in the permanent dentition.
Usually, extra teeth appears about averageupper incisors, molars, premolars, canines, at least between the lower incisors, premolars and canines. They can grow on the dental arch, as may be located in advance of the mouth or directly in the mouth in the upper region of the sky.
The shape of supernumerary teeth may be similarthe usual unit permanent dentition, but most have a teardrop shape or spinous. They can be placed in isolation, soldered with permanent teeth, forming a whole tooth and conglomerates zubopodobnye education.
Sometimes supernumerary teeth are "hidden" from view, that is impacted, then they are found only in the X-ray examination.
interfere supplemental unitsthe formation of the dentition and difficult dentition. With significant amounts once the jaw tooth does not disturb the structure of the dentition, and at a small jaw certainly causes anomalies in the position of complete tooth that has a negative aesthetic, functional and often psychological consequences for the individual.
Children with abnormal tooth development is often reduced appetite, they slowly chew food, they often violated swallowing, it all becomes a cause of diseases of the digestive system.
The close arrangement of the teeth, their wrongthe situation complicates the process of self-purification of the dentition and holding hygiene. This creates favorable conditions for the development of caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and periodontitis, leading to the destruction of the hard tissues of teeth and hair loss.
Holders of extra teeth often lisp. Disorders of speech and cosmetic defects become a cause of ridicule of the child, it is formed from a closed and unsociable person, often affected his mental development.
In most cases, supernumerary teethdetected during the eruption of the anterior teeth. To clarify the number and location, required x-ray diagnosis, but a simple X-ray can not do, because the shade of extra teeth superimposed on the outline of the elements of complete dentition.
For accurate diagnosis using giperdontiiX-rays inside of the mouth with the images in different projections. In multiple retention supernumerary teeth useful information about the mutual disposition of supernumerary permanent teeth and gives orthopantomography.
Approach giperdontii differentiated treatment,therapy depends on the location of the extra teeth. In general, supernumerary teeth are to be removed as early as possible, especially if they violate the anatomy of the dentition, causing painful experiences of the patient. With the elimination of extra teeth in childhood normal form of the dentition are often recovered through the mechanisms of self-regulation of the body, but if you lose time, without subsequent orthodontic treatment can not do.
Sometimes, in order to preserve the functions of the dentition, on the contrary, sacrifice dystopic permanent tooth, while maintaining privileged position, anatomically full supernumerary tooth.
If a supernumerary tooth grows at the siteunerupted permanent, first determine the extent of its usefulness. If the supernumerary tooth is stable, it has the development of indigenous and more or less anatomically correct shape and cut-proof "the rightful owner of the place" while insolvent and no future, preference is given to "invader".
Removal of impacted, embedded in the fabricjaw supernumerary teeth, presents certain difficulties associated with the depth of their occurrence, irregular shape, proximity to the roots and germs of the permanent teeth. However, a rational approach to operational supernumerary tooth in view of the results of X-ray inspection, to successfully address these challenges.
Children supernumerary teeth removed under general or local anesthetic, on the background of sedatives, adults - just local anesthesia.