In the Middle Ages the birth of Siamese twinsconsidered wiles of the devil. When extinguished fires of the Inquisition, the birth of conjoined children explained that their mother during pregnancy, looking at monsters. What is the true reason why science does not know so far, therefore, as usual, blame the environment around.
embryos coalescence occurs in the second weekpregnancy. Most often they are killed in the womb, so the pregnancy ends in miscarriage. Among those who are still to appear light girls three times more than boys. The birth of twins - a phenomenon in itself is rare, and in each 200-m event, they fused. This one pregnancy at 150-200 thousand.
Forced to "affection" Siamese twinsto each other especially dangerous for their health. Their appearance on the light, from a medical point of view, is itself a congenital malformation. A fusion of the internal organs, one heart and one liver for two leads to the load on the body of children, many of the "Siamese" killed because of severe violations of internal organs.
The operation of the separation often becomesthe only chance of surviving twins, so in recent years they spend more and more often. The desire to have, at last, a truly personal life, to see each other without the aid of a mirror - this is a secondary reason, even though it is presented to the public as the main intrigue.
The first successful operation was already in 1689. Then the German surgeon Koenig managed to free from each other twins, conjoined at the waist. Since then, doctors operated 300 pairs, but only in recent years began to take on "jewelry" surgery: separation of Siamese twins, conjoined skull, the brain or the base of the spine, as well as having one to two of the heart or liver. The operation is considered successful if at least one survives.
Today, safe results - 65-80%. The greatest difficulties arise with janiceps - twins fused heads. The chances of a successful outcome of the operation are increased in the absence of defects in the meninges and the minimum amount of common vessels.
In the UK three years ago, parentsSiamese twins Jodie and Mary to give girls in the hands of the surgeons made the court. Immediately after the birth of children to light, it became clear that the circulatory and respiratory systems, Mary does not work and lives solely through the heart and lungs Jody. Doctors came to the conclusion that non-separated sister can live only six months, after which the body stops Jodi handle the load and both girls would die. Their parents did not dare to permit the deliberate murder of Mary: "You can not argue with nature. If the will of the Lord both of our baby would not survive, so be it. " However, the court decided to separate the girls, and they were operated. The miracle did not happen: Jodie survived only.
This case is exceptional only in that sacrificeone child has forced the court for the other parent. Choose between twin falls are not uncommon. In 1902, French doctors operated on 14-year-old Indian sisters Raditsu and Doditsu connected thorax and abdomen. From the age of five girls show in London circus impresario. And when they came to the exhibition, organized by the French Academy of Medicine, doctors found that Doditsa TB patients. Twins shared to save Raditsu. But she survived her sister by only two years.
During the operation to separate SiameseTwins tend to involve the best surgeons often working in shifts for at one day, a large number of nursing staff, and, of course, it costs a lot of money. Fans of counting the value of other people's lives for a long time say, that there is nothing to throw a lot of money on the dubious success of the operation, while many people can not get much more basic medical care. In addition, when ordinary brothers and sisters affected by the same disease, no one offers to consciously send one of them to death, transplanting his organs to another.
Such hype arose in 1993 after a failedoperation sisters Amy and Angela Leykberg, fused from the chest to the abdomen, had a common liver and heart strain. Their mother has during pregnancy, know that it will be born Siamese twins, which are unlikely to survive.
Yet she refused an abortion. When the twins were born, they were so weak that the doctors wanted to turn off the devices to sustain life. But parents found in Philadelphia clinic where doctors agreed to share the sisters operate deformed heart and save the lives of at least one girl. Amy died during surgery, Angela little did not live to their first birthday.
Parents of other twins were more fortunate. A cruel choice between two daughters were not in vain. Christine and Betsy Woden divided shortly after their birth in 1973. Betsie had died of heart disease, and Christine still lives. Their mother has justified its decision philosophically: "They had to be divided, and there was something that had to happen. The strong survive, the weak do not always. But for the life of salvation sometimes you have to sacrifice something. "
Each operation, especially if it endsunsuccessfully, revives debate about how it is possible to choose between two connected, but all the same kinds of people who have the right to decide who of the two of them leave the life. And statistics, among other things, shows that the mortality rate among non-separated twins is much higher than among operated, even if one of them died. Without timely intervention surgeons severe developmental disorder of internal organs conjoined children often compounded and at the same time, several times increases the risk of surgery or make it impossible.