The main cause of burns in young children isboiling water. Interestingly, almost always burns occur in the first half of the day - at a time when preparing dinner and when infants and adolescents are in the kitchen. Very often children are burned by hot beverages and hot water from the tap. If your child (which is a great pleasure doing small children) pulled the tablecloth and tipped the kettle or pot of coffee, then most likely, the burn will appear in his skin redness.
If the child is scalded with boiling water, then defeatmuch more serious. It takes a surprisingly short period of exposure to hot water, so there was a deep burn, especially the thin skin of newborns and children. It takes 1 second at a temperature of 70 ° C, the child received a very serious injury.
The speed and efficiency of intervention indeification children often means the difference between life and death. The shorter the time that elapses from the time of the burn, and since the child's admission to hospital, the greater the chance of survival.
Much can be done to preventfurther damage in the child fired directly at the scene. It is necessary to extinguish the flames, but more importantly - it is necessary to stop the fabric corruption. Smouldering fibers, as practice shows, increases in the temperature of several hundred degrees, compared with the flame. Thus, leaving smoldering cloth on the skin, we will promote the deepening of the burn. If possible, the burnt area should be cooled with cool or cold water, you can also wrap the burned area in a soaked cloth. Cooling with ice can not be used, as this may complicate a burn injury.
After the baby was carried out of the burning buildingand stripped off his clothes, it is necessary to conduct a quick inspection in search of other damage. The first step is to see how well the baby is breathing, check the pressure and examine whether fractures.
With regard to electrical shocks, it is important tofirst determine if the child is still in contact with Elektroistochnik not whether this is a source of energy a danger to others. With the help of dry wood, rubber or plastic, eliminate contact with the child Elektroistochnik.
Before transporting the patient as soon as possibleburned areas should be sterile bandage or clean cloth. Fats, fat, domestic, and other people's money can not be used because they can lead to further deepen the burn.
In urgent need of hospitalization primarily affected the following categories of children:
- Children up to three years, in which the burn covers more than 10-12% of the surface.
- Children with all elektroozhogami.
- Children with burns the flame burns on the face or with suspected respiratory damage.
- Children with burns, breathtaking anatomical areas such as the face, hands, genitals and perineum.
In order to determine the degree of damageburn, apply several methods. For example, the "rule of nines". The basic principle consists of using rule of nines that the entire surface of the main body part can be divided into multiples of nine percent. For example, adult human hand, as well as the head is about 9% of the body surface, while the back from the shoulders to the buttocks is approximately 18%. Initially, the "rule of nines" was developed in the Department of the Army Burn military hospital of Brooke on the basis of the proportions of young people.
As regards the application of this rule to children, andnewborn, you need to make some modifications. The surface of the infant's head occupies a greater percentage of the total body surface, whereas a smaller percentage occupied limb. Such differences depending on age should be considered in determining the surface area burnt.
To determine the extent of the burn can be usedand very crude method, the so-called right hand. Almost any age palm is approximately 1% of the total body surface area. Using a hand, you can quickly determine the approximate total area burned.
It is important to provide physicians a more possiblefull information: burn time, its cause, whether received burn indoors or outdoors, the combustion duration of observed damage resulting from burns. Since breathing is one of the main causes of death from a burn, it is necessary to evaluate the child's respiratory system. The child suffered burns in a closed or smoky environment, exposed to serious danger of severe damage to the respiratory tract, or carbon monoxide poisoning. Appearance can help determine the presence of severe pulmonary complications. In a troubled, blue-baby, frantically swallowing air is likely to damage the respiratory tract. A characteristic cherry color of the patient suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning, can not be confused with a healthy complexion.
If any chemical burns (whether acidor alkali) should immediately wash the affected area with plenty of liquid. What is a liquid you use, it does not matter. The easiest and fastest water, which is always at hand.
The more water falls on the wound, the lessconcentration becomes hit the skin of the chemical. Therefore, if you are continuously irrigate the skin running water, then you do it right. When chemical eye burns are decisive first 5-10 minutes. At this time, it is determined what would be the consequences of a burn. In this case, you need to constantly wash the eyes with water. In doing so, you will not damage or injure the eye. Transporting the child to the eye doctor, you must continue to wash the affected eye, and at this time. Fill the bottles with water as much as possible, lift the lid child (even if you have to do it by force) and wash, wash, wash!
So, do not panic unnecessarily raising and observing simple first aid measures can significantly alleviate the severity of the burn your child.