How it began
the end of the XIX century French physician Franz Glenara struck
Idea: If our ancestors walked on all fours, the location
digestive system should be combined with our bad
present vertical gait. Glenar started to surgical
step implementation of the idea into practice. Patients complain of abdominal pain and
Other diseases of the digestive system, offered crafty
operation, the aim of which - changes to the configuration
gastrointestinal tract. Thereafter, patients with problems typically
compounded, but their complaints have not stopped the surgeon.
stage have been incurred at the beginning of the XX century ideas about the slow
the poisoning of the body waste products of putrefying bacteria,
located in the cecum. Nobel laureate Ilya Mechnikov believed
that the human digestive system, developed in the previous stages
evolution, poorly adapted to the modern diet. Inspired
This idea of an English surgeon William Lane decided to put it into practice.
he carried out an operation to correct the "mistakes of nature", to change the location
Connection of the small intestine to the colon. Then he began to remove all the fat
intestine, suggesting that this operation will release the body from being there
putrefactive bacteria and contribute to the treatment of a number of illnesses - from
sores to schizophrenia. Lane spent more than 1,000 such operations; dozens of his
followers, as the researchers write, left "countless
victims ", among whom were dead. Only in the 30-ies of XX century
medical textbooks began to appear critical notes about
activities and followers Glenara Mechnikov Lane.
But all this may seem unimportant episodes compared with the problem of so-called vestigial organs.
A favorite "proof" of evolution
"Rudimentary" in Latin means "embryonic"
"Underdeveloped", "residual". Among such formations biologists
carried those anatomical structures, which, in accordance with the teachings of
Darwin went to a man from his ancestors, while losing
their original function and become useless.
there were about 180 "useless" at the beginning of the XX century. These include,
Specifically, it includes such vital anatomical structures such as
thymus (thymus), the epiphysis (the pineal gland), tonsils,
knee meniscus ... If scientists could not determine the function of the organ
in the body, he was considered a vestige. It is not surprising that with the growth of
scientific knowledge of a list of such bodies is becoming less and less.
Today, many scientists believe that it is time to abolish completely.
It turned out that most of the so-called rudiments perform even
one but several important functions. Take away their - and the person will begin
big health problems.
Even in the coccyx
with modern biology textbooks it is often called "the remnant
reduced tail. " However, studies have shown that if
coccyx and associated with the musculoskeletal system it did not exist, people
It would require a fundamentally different system of domestic support
authorities. But understand this, doctors could only after being swept
fashion wave in the surgery to remove the coccyx - the most deplorable
Its sad story have
appendix. It is now known that it plays an important role in the
immune system. The appendix consists of lymphatic tissue, so
It helps the body fight infections, especially in the first years of life.
The researchers note that the location of the appendix about the connection
small and large intestines, in particular, to protect the small intestine by bacteria
inhabiting the cecum.
For a long time considered
rudiments of the tonsils. Only in the last decade, it became clear that they
necessary growing organism in order to promote the launch of
defense mechanism against infections. Meanwhile, the "unnecessary" tonsil
They were cut from tens of millions of people. Only in the USA in the 30s
the last century, they have removed more than half of the children.
and other upper respiratory tract infections, children with intact and
tonsillectomy ill about the same. But the staff
New York oncology service soon discovered that people with
tonsillectomy is almost 3 times more prone to some
malignant diseases. The same tendency to cancer
disease observed in people with appendectomy. Thus, after
survey of several hundred patients with various forms of cancer
It revealed that 84 percent of them the appendix was removed. AT
the control group was absent only at 25 percent.
In general, it is not surprising that modern surgeons are less and less willing to cut the "extra" bodies.