The extra bodies

Content

  • How it began
  • A favorite "proof" of evolution



  • How it began

    AT
    the end of the XIX century French physician Franz Glenara struck
    Idea: If our ancestors walked on all fours, the location
    digestive system should be combined with our bad
    present vertical gait. Glenar startedThe extra bodies to surgical
    step implementation of the idea into practice. Patients complain of abdominal pain and
    Other diseases of the digestive system, offered crafty
    operation, the aim of which - changes to the configuration
    gastrointestinal tract. Thereafter, patients with problems typically
    compounded, but their complaints have not stopped the surgeon.

    The next
    stage have been incurred at the beginning of the XX century ideas about the slow
    the poisoning of the body waste products of putrefying bacteria,
    located in the cecum. Nobel laureate Ilya Mechnikov believed
    that the human digestive system, developed in the previous stages
    evolution, poorly adapted to the modern diet. Inspired
    This idea of ​​an English surgeon William Lane decided to put it into practice.

    at first
    he carried out an operation to correct the "mistakes of nature", to change the location
    Connection of the small intestine to the colon. Then he began to remove all the fat
    intestine, suggesting that this operation will release the body from being there
    putrefactive bacteria and contribute to the treatment of a number of illnesses - from
    sores to schizophrenia. Lane spent more than 1,000 such operations; dozens of his
    followers, as the researchers write, left "countless
    victims ", among whom were dead. Only in the 30-ies of XX century
    medical textbooks began to appear critical notes about
    activities and followers Glenara Mechnikov Lane.

    But all this may seem unimportant episodes compared with the problem of so-called vestigial organs.



    A favorite "proof" of evolution

    Word
    "Rudimentary" in Latin means "embryonic"
    "Underdeveloped", "residual". Among such formations biologists
    carried those anatomical structures, which, in accordance with the teachings of
    Darwin went to a man from his ancestors, while losing
    their original function and become useless.

    Yet
    there were about 180 "useless" at the beginning of the XX century. These include,
    Specifically, it includes such vital anatomical structures such as
    thymus (thymus), the epiphysis (the pineal gland), tonsils,
    knee meniscus ... If scientists could not determine the function of the organ
    in the body, he was considered a vestige. It is not surprising that with the growth of
    scientific knowledge of a list of such bodies is becoming less and less.
    Today, many scientists believe that it is time to abolish completely.
    It turned out that most of the so-called rudiments perform even
    one but several important functions. Take away their - and the person will begin
    big health problems.

    Even in the coccyx
    with modern biology textbooks it is often called "the remnant
    reduced tail. " However, studies have shown that if
    coccyx and associated with the musculoskeletal system it did not exist, people
    It would require a fundamentally different system of domestic support
    authorities. But understand this, doctors could only after being swept
    fashion wave in the surgery to remove the coccyx - the most deplorable
    consequences.

    Its sad story have
    appendix. It is now known that it plays an important role in the
    immune system. The appendix consists of lymphatic tissue, so
    It helps the body fight infections, especially in the first years of life.
    The researchers note that the location of the appendix about the connection
    small and large intestines, in particular, to protect the small intestine by bacteria
    inhabiting the cecum.

    For a long time considered
    rudiments of the tonsils. Only in the last decade, it became clear that they
    necessary growing organism in order to promote the launch of
    defense mechanism against infections. Meanwhile, the "unnecessary" tonsil
    They were cut from tens of millions of people. Only in the USA in the 30s
    the last century, they have removed more than half of the children.

    chill
    and other upper respiratory tract infections, children with intact and
    tonsillectomy ill about the same. But the staff
    New York oncology service soon discovered that people with
    tonsillectomy is almost 3 times more prone to some
    malignant diseases. The same tendency to cancer
    disease observed in people with appendectomy. Thus, after
    survey of several hundred patients with various forms of cancer
    It revealed that 84 percent of them the appendix was removed. AT
    the control group was absent only at 25 percent.

    In general, it is not surprising that modern surgeons are less and less willing to cut the "extra" bodies.

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