The concept of acute peritonitis
Acute peritonitis occurs when damaged orabdominal disease, abdominal organ or inflammation in the transition from a nearby body. It may occur if the infection enters the blood from vnebryushnyh bodies. Most often this disease causes severe staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli.
Peritoneum - serous membrane lining the inner surface of the abdominal wall and located in the abdominal cavity organs. It consists of a thin transparent film, smooth, shiny and moisturized.
Its total surface is approximately equal to the totalthe surface of the skin. The main function of the peritoneum - the barrier. This body, filtering body fluids, holds various foreign substances and eliminates them. The peritoneum ensures the safety of the abdominal cavity, protects them from physical injury.
In addition to a variety of diseases, the peritoneum is exposedand damage: closed (with a blunt object) and open (with a sharp object injuries and bullet). The inflammation of the peritoneum or discontinuities can lead to peritonitis (both acute and chronic). The most common acute spilled purulent peritonitis. Often, the reasons for it - a perforated gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, and open wounds of the peritoneum.
Complaints of patients are diverse and depend on the localization of the disease process in the abdominal cavity. Symptomatology also depends on the phase of disease.
In the early hours of pain prevails. Patients complain about not only growing pains in the abdomen, nausea and, stool and gas delay. The temperature rises to 38 ° C and above. Pulse quickens to 100-110 beats per minute. Language becomes dry. When palpation of the abdomen abdominal wall is tense.
At 2-3 day condition worsens. The patient is restless, there is shortness of breath, heartbeat quickens, sharpened features. Language becomes more dry. Bloating that it is usually associated with delayed stool and gas. Vomiting increases, vomit acquire coffee shade. In connection with the increase of toxicity broken functions and other organs, leading to the phenomena of hepatocellular renal failure. There come metabolic disorders, primarily due to the increase of acidosis. Urination decreases.
In comes the imaginary with the growth of intoxicationimprovement in general condition, which may mislead the patient and his family. Although abdominal pain subside for a while, objective signs indicate a serious condition. His features sharpened, his eyes sink. The person is becoming more pained expression. The patient is bedridden. Vomiting quickens. The vomit bile prevails. The smell is usually putrid. It starts vomiting debilitating nature, which leads to dehydration. food and fluid intake is not possible, although patient worries tormenting thirst.
The abdomen becomes more bloated, soft butslaboboleznennym at palpation. Tongue coated, dry. Breathing shallow, abdominal wall in breathing is not involved. When failure to provide timely assistance in the early days of the disease, death occurs on the 4-7 th day. When the first symptoms of "acute abdomen", call "ambulance."
Correctly diagnose acute peritonitis inDuring the first day, you will save a person's life. When developing the reactive stage of the disease, should pay attention to the main symptoms: sudden, persistent abdominal pain, aggravated by a change in body position, coughing, movements. The patient usually lies on his back or on your side with legs given to the stomach, sparing the stomach, avoid unnecessary movements. Vomiting of the gastric contents are usually not useful. Pulse is speeded up to 100-110 beats per minute. Here in these hours and Seek medical advice immediately.
They require special attention ulcer patientsulcer and duodenal ulcers, since it is possible perforation of the ulcer. In this case, the contents of the stomach or duodenum penetrates into the abdominal cavity, which leads to the development of peritonitis. Perforation Main symptoms: sudden sharp ( "knife-like"), pain in the upper abdomen. The patient takes a forced situation, raises the knees to his stomach, trying not to move. When palpation of the abdomen indicated a pronounced muscle tension (wooden belly). Emergency hospitalization of the patient and carrying out an emergency operation to save his life.
First aid in the treatment of the disease
What is to help the patient with acute peritonitis tothe arrival of a doctor? Do not give painkillers, as they will lead to the improvement of the imaginary, smazhut picture heavy process. It is strictly forbidden to enter antibiotics, despite the heat: it can make the diagnosis in the hospital and prevent the surgeon to determine the nature of the surgery.
To relieve the pain, you can put on your stomachbottle with cold water or ice pack. The patient must strictly adhere to the bed rest. Before arrival of the doctor in any case do not feed and do not allow to drink. Do not use, we repeat, no drugs, not to put hot-water bottles and enema. If the patient complains of bloating and the fact that the gases do not depart, put the vapor tube.