Spleen is the largest lymphoid organ,having an oval flattened shape, similar to the gland and is located in the upper left part of the abdomen, behind the stomach. She is in contact with the diaphragm, pancreas, colon, and the left kidney. The spleen is not related to the vital organs, and its inherent lack or surgical removal does not have a deep impact on the viability and growth of the organism.
Galen considered the spleen organ, "fullmystery. " It is known that the ancient Greeks and Romans runners spleen was removed to increase the running speed. spleen functions are not fully understood. For a long time it was considered endocrine (devoid of excretory ducts) gland. Since there is no reliable data on the secretory activity of the spleen, this theory had to be abandoned, although in recent years it is to some extent gained a second life. Now spleen credited hormonal regulation of bone marrow function.
In the early stages of fetal development is the spleenone of hematopoiesis. By the ninth month of fetal development education as red blood cells, white blood cells and the granulocytic series takes on the bone marrow and spleen, since this period, produces lymphocytes and monocytes. With some diseases of blood, however, in the spleen reappear pockets of blood, and a number of mammals, it functions as a hematopoietic organ throughout life.
In the adult human spleen performsseveral functions. As part of the reticuloendothelial system phagocytic it (destroys) the outdated blood cells and platelets, and converts hemoglobin to bilirubin and hemosiderin. Since hemoglobin contains iron, spleen - one of the richest in iron reservoir body. As lymphoid organ spleen is the major source of circulating lymphocytes, especially in adolescence and in young adults. Furthermore, it acts as a filter for bacteria, protozoa and foreign matter, and produces an antibody; people deprived of their spleen, especially young children, are very sensitive to many bacterial infections. Finally, an organ involved in the circulation, it serves as a reservoir of erythrocytes in a critical situation which again go into the bloodstream.
Diseases of spleen
Malformations. There are cases of congenital absencespleen. There are also variations in its size, shape and structure, such as the development of additional shares. Often identified additional spleen, sometimes several. With weak ligament spleen fixing position, it can move in the abdominal cavity; this wandering spleen is more common in women.
splenic infarction - A fairly common occurrence, though usually small myocardial lesions. Reasons infarct - leukemia and certain infections.
looping feet (GDV) of spleen leads to disruption of its circulation and requires surgery.
Abscesses. The cause of abscesses can be it a heart attack, as well as typhoid fever or subacute bacterial endocarditis. This is usually chronic, pain-free flowing process with a tendency to self-healing.
Cysts. Very rarely in the spleen and caused epithelial form echinococcus cysts. Serous cysts are more common and as well as the gaps typically result from trauma.
Degenerative processes and tumors. Amyloid degeneration may be caused bytuberculosis or chronic osteomyelitis. Recently amyloidosis (form protein dystrophy) is increasingly rare. Atrophy of the spleen is often seen in the elderly and in patients with sickle cell disease.
Primary malignant tumors of the spleen are rare, typical tumor - lymphosarcoma. Metastases to the spleen observed even less frequently.
Splenomegaly, or enlargement of the spleen, - A typical response body into a plurality ofpathological conditions. Splenomegaly may be associated with an increase in the lymph nodes, ascites (fluid in the presence of the abdominal cavity), icterus, leukopenia (reduction in white blood cells), fever, enlargement of the liver or severe anemia. It occurs in many cardiovascular diseases; in many infectious diseases - malaria, typhoid fever, smallpox, measles, syphilis, meningitis, scarlet fever, etc .; of blood diseases - leukemia, hemolytic jaundice, chronic hemolytic anemia, usually congenital. Sometimes, enlargement of the spleen occurs in Hodgkin's disease; huge size it reaches in chronic myeloid leukemia. Disorders of metabolism, especially lipid metabolism is also frequently accompanied by splenomegaly. Many liver diseases affect the condition of the spleen. In particular this applies to Banti syndrome, in which liver cirrhosis is accompanied by congestive splenomegaly and anemia. In hereditary disease - Gaucher disease - there is a violation of metabolism of fats and splenomegaly.
Since splenomegaly - a manifestation ofany other disease, treatment should be directed at the primary cause. Removal of the spleen is shown in rare cases; sometimes it is produced only in 30-60% of cases can be expected in diseases associated with an increased destruction of red blood cells in it, or platelets, especially in hemolytic jaundice, thrombocytopenic purpura, Banti's syndrome, but then improve blood indicators.