Symptoms and Diagnosis shock
Symptoms of shock are similar regardless of the causeemergence of whether the low blood volume or inadequate pumping function of the heart. The forerunners of the state are feeling the fatigue, drowsiness and confusion. The skin becomes cold and wet, often bluish and pale shades. After pressing on the skin color of her recovering much more slowly than normal. Under the skin may appear bluish network of lines. Weak pulse and rapid, if the shock is not caused by the slow rhythm of the heart rate. Man breathes rapidly, but breathing and pulse may slow down at the approach of death. blood pressure drop so much that it is often impossible to measure the tonometer. When the shock caused by excessive dilation of blood vessels, a few other symptoms. For example, the skin may be warm and red, especially at first.
In the earliest stages of shock, especiallyseptic, many symptoms are absent or detected only with special techniques. Blood pressure is very low. Urine output is also very reduced, and increasing the concentration of toxic metabolic products in the blood.
Unless urgent action is taken, typically shockIt ends in death. The prospect of the treatment depends on the cause shock related diseases, the time elapsed from onset of the condition before the treatment and the type of treatment. The probability of death from shock after a massive heart attack or septic shock in the elderly is high, regardless of the nature of the treatment.
The first person starts treatment measures shouldmake sure that the patient does not lose heat. his legs should be slightly raised to facilitate the return of blood to the heart. It is necessary to take measures to stop the bleeding, check for breathing. the patient's head is turned to one side, to prevent vomit from entering the respiratory tract. You can not give anything by mouth.
Arrived medical personnel if necessaryprovide artificial respiration. Any drugs administered intravenously. The drugs, sedatives and tranquilizers do not prescribe because they are able to lower blood pressure. There may be attempted to raise the blood pressure using a special antishock suit. It puts pressure on the lower part of the body, thus contributing to, the flow of blood from the legs to the heart and brain. Intravenous fluid. Blood transfusion before checking for compatibility.
Intravenous fluids and blood transfusionblood is insufficient to counteract shock if continued bleeding or fluid loss, and if the shock is caused by myocardial or other condition not related to a decrease in blood volume. In such cases, prescribe medicines that constrict blood vessels to increase blood flow to the brain or the heart, but they should be used, so far as short as possible, because these drugs can reduce the blood flow in both tissues.
If shock caused by insufficient pumpheart function (heart attack), the effort is directed out to improve its contractile ability of using tools such as dopamine, milrinone. Correct the heart rate and rhythm disorders, if necessary, increase the volume of blood. In order to increase the heart rate using atropine and other drugs that increase the heart muscle contraction. special balloon pump can be inserted into the aorta Myocardial to temporarily relieve the symptoms of shock. After this procedure sometimes needs emergency bypass surgery or correction of heart disease.
If a shock is caused by a heart attack, improved pumpingthe function of the damaged heart and thus can eliminate the shock emergency surgery - percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is performed to open the blocked coronary artery. If after infarction was not more than 6 (in the extreme case of 12 hours in patients injected drugs that dissolve the blood clot (thrombolytic drug).
The shock caused by excessive dilation of bloodvessels primarily treated with drugs that constrict vessels. At the same time correcting the causes of excessive vasodilatation, ie the underlying disease.