Caring for elderly patients
The popular medical literature seniorscalled age interval from 60 to 75 years, and senile - more than 75 years. Each period has its own characteristics regarding the occurrence of chronic diseases, complications related to compliance with bed rest, nutrition, metabolism, etc. Often, elderly and senile patients there is a combination of several chronic diseases caused by the general degradation of the organs and tissues, as well as the natural decline in immunity. The most common illnesses are coronary heart disease, hypertension, dystonia. Less common are diabetes, destructive changes in the joints (e.g., pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis) kidney disease, enuresis, disturbances of the hematopoietic organs, bone fractures due to the gradual leaching of calcium them. Almost always, older people have vision problems - hyperopia or myopia, cataract, glaucoma, and there is a physiological reduction in hearing sensitivity. Among the neurological and psychiatric disorders often observed insomnia, nervousness, depression, and mental deterioration (in the defeat of the blood vessels of the brain).
Caring for immobile patients of elderly and senileage is associated with certain difficulties. You will need much more time to perform a variety of procedures and manipulations. You have to remember that with age people become more touchy, vulnerable, they often exaggerate the severity of their own state, presenting unfounded complaints. Sleep disorders, common in elderly bedridden patients, lead to a breach of doctor recommended daily routine. Your mentee may sleep for the whole day and night to keep active, read, listen to music, to demand food.
Try to ensure that no elderly persononly physical but also psychological comfort. During the communication, consider the characteristics of the individual patient, as well as his mood: restless must be smooth, benevolent sympathy for the oppressed - cheerful, energetic tone. Remember that the most traumatic psychogenic factor leading to the emergence of somatic complications are your indifference and formal attitude to perform the duties. Inattention, real or apparent, has become one of the causes of irritability your ward. Most people in old age, lose the ability to serve themselves, to cook, to go to the store and so on. N. In addition, due to the specific nature of age-related changes may be embarrassed to remind you about the time of the meal. That is why it is advisable to draw up a clear timetable for the necessary procedures and measures, placing it in a prominent place.
Often the elderly bedridden patients feelingJust noticeable it becomes saturated or disappears altogether. This anomaly in the absence of proper control on your part can lead to serious disorders of the gastrointestinal tract until the development of acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery. Ask your doctor what diet and how much food your ward should receive per day, and follow the recommendations. If the patient is constantly asked is, try to distract him with something (turn on the TV or the radio, read a book, etc.). Do not forget about daily hygiene activities. The patient will feel a lot better after washing and combing hair, shaving, washing, light massage, general wiping skin.
Be careful during the airing. Elderly and old people become sensitive to drafts and low temperatures in the room, since the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer decreases with age. In cold weather, before you open the window, be sure to move the patient to another room or nestle 2-3 blankets. Recall that any deterioration in the health of your ward is a cause for immediate doctor's call. Before the arrival of a specialist is necessary to limit the activity of the patient, forbid him to climb out of bed on their own, to cancel classes exercise therapy, massage, physiotherapy procedures recommended.
Pay special attention to the prevention of pressure ulcers,stagnation of blood and other complications related to compliance with very strict and strict bed rest. More detailed recommendations on this topic are given in the previous chapters. As the skin of elderly people largely loses its elasticity and becomes dry, you can apply nutritional agents with a high content of fat components.
In some diseases in your wardmay develop nocturnal enuresis (called nocturia), that is, urinary incontinence during sleep. The causes of this disease are usually dysfunctional changes in the kidneys and bladder, too deep sleep, brain disorders etc. If the patient wakes up before urination, but because of the strong weakness is not able to walk to the restroom, set next to the bed or to strengthen its back button of an electric bell, so you can just come to the rescue. In other cases it is advisable to use a disposable diaper with the absorbent gel layer.