Drug therapy of chronic renal failure
Drug therapy is primarily to correct irregularities that occur in chronic renal failure.
Already in the early stage it is detected reductioncalcium in the organism that may lead to seizures and changes in the bones - until fracture. Therefore, patients on an outpatient basis are advised to take calcium supplements: calcium gluconate (1 tablet 3 times a day), 10% calcium chloride solution (1 tbsp 4-5 times a day..).
The content of potassium, magnesium and phosphorous in the body,Conversely, it increased more. Therefore, you can not take potassium supplements, magnesium (Pananginum, asparkam, potassium chloride); should be deleted, and foods rich in these substances.
In anemia patients taking iron supplementsfolic acid (1 tablet three times a day). Patients with chronic renal failure are recommended cleansing enemas, especially sodas. Effective use of the so-called sorbents (such as activated charcoal) adsorbing the toxic substances in the gut.
Continues previously carried out hypotensivetherapy, treatment of edema. In recent years, so-called active methods are widely used in chronic renal failure. This is primarily hemodialysis hemosorbtion, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation.
Hemodialysis - "artificial kidney" - was firstproposed for the treatment of patients with chronic renal failure in 1943. The principle of operation of all devices "artificial kidney" is the same: through a special semi-permeable membrane made of blood contact and the dialysis fluid having a specific chemical composition. As a result, the blood and the dialysis liquid electrolytes are exchanged, other nitrogenous substances and slag accumulating in the patient's blood, and blood thus purified. Hemodialysis sessions held at different rates: a day, every day, 2-3 times a week. Duration 6-8 hours of hemodialysis. This treatment significantly improves the condition of the patient and affect life expectancy. Today on hemodialysis are 100 to 200 people per 1 million population. Unfortunately, in the present state of our health is not possible to provide dialysis for all patients in need.
Recently hemodialysis complementhemosorption using methods and hemofiltration - blood purification using sorbents. Along with hemodialysis becoming increasingly widespread peritoneal dialysis in which a dialysis fluid is introduced in small portions at a certain time into the peritoneal cavity where food saturates exchange and then replaced with fresh solution.
In chronic renal failure shownhigh-calorie food, the calorie content is provided by fat and carbohydrates, with protein restriction to 20-40, the dishes should be prepared from food containing digestible complete proteins with all essential amino acids.
To normalize the water-electrolyte metabolismrecommended intake of fruits and vegetables. The amount of salt and water is determined based on the presence of edema and renal excretory function. In the initial stage of the disease (with copious liquid) salt generally is not limited to - is allowed to 10-15 grams per day, high blood pressure and swelling of the salt is limited to 5-7, the amount of liquid in the initial stage, too, is not limited to, in the future also be calculated by the formula: 500 ml of urine plus the number of the previous day.
In the initial stage of the disease is allowed to diet number 7;with moderately severe symptoms of chronic disease in remission recommended diet number 76; at the stage of severe renal insufficiency - a diet № 7a having a predominantly plant-oriented, with a sharp restriction of protein, total exclusion of salt and a moderate decrease in fat and carbohydrates.
The diet number 7a resolved and eliminated the same foods and dishes, as in diet number 76, but almost in 2 times reduced the amount of meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products.