The most dangerous is the dysarthria in children, since together with the loss of normal speech, their adaptation to the world around will be disturbed, since it is difficult for them to perceive speech by ear, and accordingly, in the future, read and write. In this regard, with adults easier. In adult dysarthria does not destroy the perception of speech on rumor. As a person heard and understood the said, so after the dysarthria gains, he understands everything. And reads just as read earlier. And on his written abilities the disease did not affect. Speech changed.
Let's talk about everything in order. To begin with, let's answer the question: what can cause dysarthria in an adult?
First, this is a stroke (blood circulation disorder in the brain). This is the most common cause of dysarthria in adults. Among other reasons, vascular disorders, inflammation and brain tumors, Alzheimer's diseases (gradual destruction of the central nervous system), Parkinson (chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system), Huntington (genetic disease of the nervous system). You can add multiple sclerosis and asthenic boobial paralysis to this list.
Much less often dysarthria arises as a result of injuries of the head, poisoning (lead or carbon monoxide) or an overdose of drug intake. Finish this list of infections and toxins caused by drug use and alcohol. As you can see, unlike children, dysarthria in adults can arise from «Conscious» Acts.
The reasons for the occurrence of dysarthria we marked, and then the same story as in children. Speech apparatus, both in the child and in an adult, requires a coordinated simultaneous work of a number of systems. And violation in any link system (or system interaction) can lead to dysarthritia.
Here are the systems involved in the formation of speech:
- Respiratory system, which consists of a nose, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi. The main goal is the nutrition of the body with oxygen, carbon dioxide and voice formation.
- The articulation system, which consists of a larynx, voice folds, language, solid and soft sky, teeth, lips and resonators. The main goal of the articulation system (apparatus) is the creation of speech sounds, that is, the speech produce.
- Central nervous system consisting of a head and spinal cord, which with the help of the peripheral nervous system «Organizes» Sophisticated work of the whole organism, including this.
Lightweight serves an air jet in the trachea and larynx. Where without air. The air in the larynx produces a voice that reflects in the resonators falls into the articulation apparatus. And there is a soft sky, tongue, teeth, lips and jaws for him. What we have at the exit? Vowels and consonant sounds from which we create words and suggestions. And throughout this chain, the central nervous system tracks the process and submits the necessary commands.
This is the perfect picture. And we are talking about dysarthria. Dysarthria, this is a violation of pronunciation, resulting from the defeat of the central nervous system. If the respiratory system is in poor condition, it means that the voice may be too quiet. Problems in the larynx can manifest in slow, hoarse speech. Soft heaven is responsible for the voice to be in «measure» nose. And if we are in illegible and fuzzy - it is necessary to deal with the language, lips, jaw and other «employees» Articulation apparatus.
The main method of treatment of dysarthria is the treatment of the disease that caused it. But most often, this is not enough. It is best to start training all the systems involved in the formation of speech.
In order to enhance (trained) the respiratory system quite often use system exercises.N. Strelnikova. This respiratory system is also called paradoxical. What is its paradox? In that it goes into a section with generally accepted respiratory gymnastics. We are accustomed to the fact that leaning - do it out. And straightening - inhale. Strelniki, the opposite: slope, and a sharp breath; straightening - exhaling.
The articulation system is also amenable to workout. We have already described several complexes of articulation exercises, with which you can «teach» correct actions of repersion. Of course, you need to do massages: in the muscle spa, relaxing; With excessive relaxation of the muscles, on the contrary, activate.
Central nervous system too «Train», oddly it sounds. Her trainings are held simultaneously with the workouts of the articulation and respiratory system. In parallel and imperceptibly. That is, performing articulation and breathing exercises automatically «Created» Damaged bonds between the brain sites.