• What is chemotherapy?
  • Advantages of chemotherapy
  • How effective is chemotherapy?
  • How chemotherapy is carried out?
  • Side effects
  • Other side effects
  • Conclusion

  • What is chemotherapy?

    Chemotherapy is the main type of drug
    Cancer treatment. There are a number of other methods of treatment that, strictly
    speaking, are also chemotherapeutic, such as hormonal
    Therapy and immunotherapy, but the term «chemotherapy» specifically means
    Cytotoxic treatment, T.E. violating the division process
    cancer cells resulting in new.

    Advantages of chemotherapy

    Preparations are injected into the bloodstream, where they circulate throughout
    Organism. This consists of a huge advantage of chemotherapy before
    Other Cancer Treatment Methods. Often unable to remove all cancers
    Cells through surgical intervention or radiation therapy,
    which are local methods, t.E. Their action is directed only to
    Some one specific area of ​​the body. This is explained by
    A certain number of cells can be separated from the primary tumor and
    Bloodstop falls into one or another part of the body, where he begins to grow,
    forming secondary tumors or metastases.

    Since chemotherapeutic drugs are moved in the same way,
    They can hit these remote cells and secondary tumors in any
    Plot of the body. First experience in the use of chemotherapeutic
    methods whose action was based on this principle was
    Antibiotic therapy with infections. Antibiotics destroy bacteria,
    causing an infection where they would be in the body. However,
    the bacteria differs very different from normal
    organism cells, which makes it possible to create antibiotics that
    purposefully affect bacteria, without harming normal
    cells. Meanwhile, cancer cells differ from normal very
    negative. They lost the mechanism controlling their growth and
    Reproduction, but otherwise most chemical processes,
    taking place in the cells of both types, similar.

    Consequently, drugs,
    affecting cancer cells, apparently damage and normal
    Cells. Although cancer cells are relatively damaged compared
    with normal cells of the body and less capable of
    self-healing. The use of chemotherapeutic methods is based on
    accounting for this defectiveness. Treatment usually lasts from one to several
    days, then take a break for a few weeks. At that time
    Normal organism cells are restored, while cancer cells
    Only negative are restored. Subsequent cycles
    Medical treatment is aimed at further destruction of cancer
    cells, while normal cells will
    continuously recover.

    How effective is chemotherapy?

    Some types of cancer are healing through only chemotherapy. but
    For most types of cancer, it is still impossible, and medication
    Treatment in such cases is carried out in order to control the development
    diseases and its deterrence, as well as to relieve
    Symptoms. The main reason explaining why with
    Chemotherapeutic methods can not be healing most of the types of cancer,
    It is that either cancer cells acquire resistance to
    preparations or they have partial or complete resistance to them
    from the very beginning. For example, if with any cancer 99% of cells
    Sensitive to medicines, chemotherapy will eliminate 99
    % defeat, but will not have any influence on the remaining 1% cells,
    who will continue to grow. Resistance to therapeutic preparations and incomplete
    The destruction of cancer cells are essential obstacles to
    The effectiveness of treatment and became the subject of intensive scientific
    Research. Cancer cells acquire stability to one or another
    drug due to the development of biochemical processes allowing
    overcome the damage caused by the cells by this drug. One of the paths
    solutions to this problem consists in the appointment of several different
    preparations, each of which has a specific devastating
    Cancer. Development of several protection mechanisms at once
    cells are more difficult, therefore the likelihood increases
    Continuous tumor destruction. This method of chemotherapy led
    to a significant increase in cure indicators in some species

    Another way to overcome sustainability is to appoint
    significantly higher doses of chemotherapeutic. Problem in
    that such high doses cause serious damage and normal
    cells, especially bone marrow responsible for blood formation.
    Similar high doses are justified only in cases where possible
    Bone marrow or stem cell transplant. The larger the tumor
    More likely to preparations for its resistance. Therefore, if primary
    The tumor is removed surgically and there is a danger that a small
    The number of cancer cells has already spread to others
    parts of the body, then in order to avoid relapse, when the treatment will be
    It is already more difficult to conduct, immediately after the operation, you can proceed to
    Chemotherapy to destroy all the remaining cancer cells. Such
    The approach is called adjuvant chemotherapy.

    How chemotherapy is carried out?

    Preparations can be administered orally (through the mouth), more often
    intravenous (intravenous method). The purpose of such treatment is to
    introducing active anticancer agents in the bloodstream by which they
    are transferred to cancer cells, wherever they were. Sometimes
    Chemotherapeutic agents are injected directly into specific
    plots of the body, for example, in the cerebrospinal fluid or
    Right intestine. In this case, the goal of achieving high
    Concentration of the drug in this place. The easiest method of administration
    drugs - oral in the form of tablets or liquid, which gives
    the ability to take them at home without the help of a medical sister or doctor.

    However, this is a less reliable method compared to injections, since
    no confidence that when receiving each dose in the body
    The same amount of medication will be absorbed. Most
    Increased way is the introduction
    chemotherapeutic drug in Vienna or by injection or
    More often drip method. Typically, such treatment should be carried out in
    hospital outpatient or stationary. Every dose of medicine is introduced into
    The period from one to several days at intervals of 1-4 weeks (in
    Depending on the treatment regimen) with a total number of courses from 4 to 8. Sometimes
    Low doses are continuously introduced, for which they use a small portable
    pump. On it, drugs are poured into the body throughout
    several weeks or even months. Pump attach to the belt or wear
    in bag, and patients can engage in their usual activities.

    Side effects

    Chemotherapy can cause various side effects, and in
    past they were very heavy and treatment in many cases caused
    Unpleasant emotions and poorly transferred. Now chemotherapy has changed
    beyond recognition. New drugs cause fewer side effects, and
    At the same time, they are often more effective than old.

    Togo, much more advanced methods for relief and
    Warnings side effects. To three most common
    The side effects of drug treatment during cancer are nausea and
    vomiting, hair loss and bone marrow. Nausea and vomiting in
    The past were the most painful reactions to chemotherapy. One of
    The most important modern achievements in the treatment of cancer - the creation of a very
    effective means against nausea (antiemetic drugs). They are
    many cases can eliminate nausea, and now practically not
    There are situations when patients undergoing chemotherapy would suffer
    indomitable nausea or vomit. Because the
    Chemotherapeutic agents have also become better and often
    cause less unpleasant sensations, many patients pass the whole course
    chemotherapy without suffering nausea or vomit. Hair loss
    observed when applying some, but not all chemotherapeutic
    drugs. It may be no more than minor loss or
    hair thinning, but sometimes comes full baldness, and not
    Only on the head, but also on the rest of the body.

    ChemotherapySimilar reaction -
    A very painful aspect of cancer treatment, as people are difficult
    adapt to such a change in appearance, which except
    other things may probably be perceived as quite bright external
    manifestation of this disease. Many people wear wigs or
    cover your head with a scarf or hat.

    Hair loss - only temporary
    phenomenon, and immediately after the end of treatment, they always grow with usual
    speed. The impact on the bone marrow is due to the fact that its cells
    Especially sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs. Bone marrow
    Products blood components - red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets.
    When the number of these cells is reduced as a result of damage under
    the action of cytotoxic means, a number of side
    Effects: a sense of fatigue and weakness as a result of anemia caused by
    erythrocyte failure; susceptibility to infections due to low
    leukocyte levels; bleeding and hematomas as a result of shortage

    All these side effects can be largely
    control, so in the course of medication treatment follows
    regularly conduct blood tests in order to verify levels
    specified cells, as well as identifying and treating certain violations.
    Anemia is treated by blood transfusion. If leukocyte levels
    Low or it seems likely to increase their quantity
    You can resort to growth factors injections. Transfusion
    platelets (similar blood transfusions, but only in this case
    It is about alone platelets) can be done at low levels of these
    cells. Now the development of new platelet growth factors for
    treatment and prevention of bleeding due to their low content.

    Other side effects

    Diarrhea is often observed when applying some, but not
    All chemotherapeutic drugs. It can be easily and efficient
    treat ordinary drugs selling in a pharmacy. With severe form
    Diarrhea can be suspended by chemotherapy for a while or reduce dose
    chemotherapeutic preparation while diarrhea is not
    stop. Fertility. Some chemotherapeutic agents
    can influence male fertility, reducing the amount of spermatozoa
    in seed liquid and leading to infertility that sometimes wears
    Permanent character. Chemotherapy can also affect women's
    ovulation, leading to temporary and constant infertility. Before the beginning
    Medical treatment should be discussed with a doctor related
    With fertility questions so that preventive measures can be taken.
    Men can offer conservation of sperm envisaged
    storing the samples of their seed fluid in the frozen state on that
    case if they plan to have children in the future. Women's storage
    egg cells is currently the subject of experimental
    studies and may well be possible. People suffering
    infertility as a result of treatment, counseling and
    moral support to help them reconcile with their

    Women in which treatment causes constant menopause,
    Can be carried out replacement hormone therapy for weakening
    symptoms that can be very heavy. Sex life.
    Any reason to refuse sexual life in
    Medical treatment time does not exist, although because of others
    Side Effects The well-being of patients may not be good enough
    for this. Since the effect of chemotherapy for fertility is somewhat
    vaguely and unpredictable, it is recommended to always resort to
    or other contraceptive in the process of treatment and some
    time after its end, regardless of who from partners it
    It is carried out because during this period there is a possibility of conception.
    Undergoing chemotherapy men should think about the use
    condoms because women sometimes complain about sperm
    acute pain and burning sensation.


    Thanks to the achievements of recent years associated with the quality of themselves
    drugs, methods of their introduction and ways of relief or
    Warning side effects, chemotherapy has become much less
    painful than it was 10 years ago. Now doctors often have
    hear that patients transfer it much easier than expected.
    Nevertheless, it still causes unpleasant emotions and strong
    concern why many people need support from
    his family and friends who would help them cope with problems and
    preserve a positive attitude towards what is its
    Rod Marathon Distance in the Treatment Process.

    Numerous scientific research and clinical are continuously underway
    Tests dedicated to the creation of more advanced chemotherapy methods
    Almost with all types of cancer. The most striking results were obtained in
    Studies to develop effective methods of combining chemotherapy
    with other types of treatment, such as radiotherapy and surgical
    interventions aimed at cure or extension of life
    In situations in which it would be impossible earlier.

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