Nosebleeds: Causes


  • Nose bleed
  • Prichinay nosebleeds
  • Chronic bleeding

  • Differences in the number and nature of nosebleeds, ceteris paribus, between male and female gender is not marked.

    Nose bleed

    Most often it occurs suddenly and can be accompanied bysignificant blood loss. At the heart of epistaxis is a violation of the integrity of the vascular wall or problems with blood clotting. Nasal bleeding may be spontaneous or induced by a variety of injuries. Causes of nosebleeds can be divided into local and general.

    The local causes include:

    • at the surface location of the choroid plexus in the nasal septum is easily damaged, and that becomes the most common cause of nasal bleeding (90%);
    • injury, which may be of different strengths - from very seemingly harmless habit picking his nose up to considerable accompanied by fractures of the facial skeleton;
    • foreign bodies in the nasal cavity, which canprovoke bleeding, directly damaging the mucous membrane, or causing inflammation at the site of their long stay. This is especially true for young children who often put their nose in a variety of items, and then forget about it or hide from adults. In this case, spotting accompanied by pus with an unpleasant odor;Nosebleeds: Causes
    • various benign and malignant tumors of the nasal cavity (in children the most frequent benign);
    • deviation of the nasal septum, which, along with periodic bleeding in most cases there will be a difficulty in nasal breathing;
    • malformations of the vascular system of the nasal cavity - with different localization expansion of the arteries and veins;
    • changes in the structure of the mucous membrane in various infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, diphtheria) and chronic rhinitis;
    • nosebleeds in children may occurdue to the fact that the dry air in the room. Dried mucous membrane of the nasal septum shrinking with the wall of a blood vessel, and they lose their elasticity and strength. As a result, when you sneeze, blowing nose, etc., This parched mucous membrane cracks and breaks with her shriveled blood vessel.

    Prichinay nosebleeds

    Diseases or conditions accompanied by impaired blood clotting properties and their combination with impaired permeability of vascular wall:

    • blood disorders (eg, hemophilia - congenital disorder characterized by the absence or deficiency of a blood clotting factors);
    • increased vascular permeability when inflammation (vasculitis), resulting in severe infections such as measles, influenza, etc .;
    • with a deficiency of vitamin C (hypovitaminosis C);
    • in hereditary diseases characterized by abnormalities in the structure of the vascular wall;
    • chronic liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis);
    • chronic inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses;
    • State, accompanied by rise in blood pressure (renal hypertension - high blood pressure in kidney diseases, exercise, sunstroke, overheating).

    Nosebleeds can begin suddenly,often during sleep. Bleeding is one-sided or right of the two halves of the nose. Bleeding are of varying intensity and duration. blood flows slowly and spontaneously stops in some cases, other blood pouring jet, bleeding can continue for a long time and does not stop spontaneously.

    It is important to understand that arose nosebleeds,even in the case of injury, can be the first sign of terrible diseases (eg, diseases of the blood) and subsequently have a debilitating recurrent (repeated) within. In all cases of nasal bleeding should consult experts, and should begin with a survey of children's visits to the ENT doctor, who will examine the nasal cavity, radiography appoint the paranasal sinuses.

    If the causes of nasal bleeding, local andparticular - superficial blood vessels in the nasal septum, the specialist can carry out their cauterization (coagulation) in various ways: electricity, laser (electro or laser coagulation) or liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy).

    Indications for cauterization of blood vessels arerecurrent nosebleeds (sometimes repeated several times a week and bring considerable inconvenience to the patient); unsuccessful attempts to stop the bleeding in other ways; pronounced bleeding; development as a result of recurrent bleeding anemia (anemia), exhaustion. In the presence of foreign bodies in the nasal passages, polyps shown their removal, etc. If the causes of bleeding general, the various surveys will be assigned, for example, blood tests, and additional consultation with other specialists: Hematologist (doctor in charge of the treatment of blood disorders), pediatrics, etc.

    Chronic bleeding

    Is the cause of slowly increasing depletionbody forming anemia. In anemia, the immune system suffers - reduced resistance to pathogens and constantly changing environmental conditions. Chronic oxygen deficiency causes the appearance of a pathological condition in which the irreversible changes of structure and function of most human organs.

    Blood loss in bulk leads to severeconsequences for the organism, and in some cases death. Bleeding may be acute or chronic. Acute bleeding causes a rapid deterioration of the patient and in a short period of time may result in loss of consciousness as a result of acute oxygen starvation of the brain, and in failing to stop - in death.

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