Chronical bronchitis


Chronical bronchitis — This is an inflammatory damage to the bronchial tree of nonallergic nature. It is caused by a long exposure to harmful agents on the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract.

Causes of chronic bronchitis

Chronical bronchitis

The main causes of chronic bronchitis are environmental factors:
  • smoking;
Inhalation of various substances polluting air, outdoor and in the house:
  1. sulfur dioxide;
  2. nitrogen dioxide;
  3. linoleum pairs;
  4. pairs of chipboard and dvp and t. D.

Internal factors that launch chronic inflammation mechanism are the male floor, the shortage of some enzymes, cytomegalovirus infection, alcoholism, drug addiction and t. D.

Symptoms of chronic bronchitis

This disease is divided into two forms: chronic obstructive bronchitis and a unstructive version of the disease.

For the unstructive bronchitis, the cough is characterized, in which the mucule is distinguished (period of remission) or mucous-purulent (exacerbation) of the sputum. When listening to the lungs, the therapist can hear large bass wheezes.

With obstructive bronchitis, in addition to cough, shortness of breath arises, the severity of which depends on the stage of the disease. Initially, it occurs during physical exertion, but with exacerbation of the inflammatory process, it may appear alone. Wheezing listened in such patients only with deep breath.

However, for the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, it is absolutely not enough to analyze complaints and inspection data. An important study method is to study the function of external respiration. At the same time determined:

  • the rate of reduction of the volume of forced exhalation within 1 second;
  • reduced lung life capacity (abbreviated — Zack);
  • reduction of forced jam.

These indicators make it possible to identify the fact of the presence of chronic bronchitis, the degree of inflammation and the rate of its progression.

The rest of the methods:

  • Radiography of the chest;
  • cytological and microbiological studies of sputum;
  • Bronchoscopy.

But they are either useless, or only allow us to exclude the diagnoses of others similar in symptoms of diseases.

Complications of chronic bronchitis

Permanent inflammation with degenerative changes in bronchi and bronchiolas leads to a violation of the integrity of the pulmonary fabric. There is an emphysema of the lungs, in which huge areas of the respiratory system are excluded from the respiratory process.

The long existence of the emphysema of the lungs inevitably leads to the appearance of chronic respiratory failure. It is this pathology that the main responsiveness of the death of patients with chronic bronchitis.

With long respiratory failure, the heart begins. Stagnation in the system of a small circle of blood circulation leads to changes in myocardium. There is a chronic pulmonary heart — Extremely severe and irreversible complication (and more precisely, the outcome) of chronic bronchitis.

Treatment of chronic bronchitis

Chronical bronchitis

Treatment of chronic bronchitis is a wide range of measures to reduce the intensity of inflammation and improved respiration.

First of all, it should be get rid of the main cause of the disease — Smoking. The rate of development of complications directly depends on the length of the smokers and the number of cigarettes smokers. Getting rid of this destructive — The first and most important step towards recovery.

A long stay should be avoided in the ranked, dusty or smoked rooms without respiratory protection equipment. Patients whose work is associated with such working conditions, should change the generation of activities.

Antibacterial therapy is prescribed with exacerbation and accurate confidence in his bacterial nature. Ideal the use of antibiotics to which bacterium is maximum sensitive. If it is impossible to determine the antibioticogram (testing for sensitivity to antibiotics), treatment is carried out by the preparations of a wide range of action. The course is usually 7 days.

The bronighting agents are used in the form of inhalations. The best preparation in chronic obstructive bronchitis is atrownt. It is constantly used, but they do not stop the attacks of suffocation. For this, there are figheries: Berotek, Salbutamol.

An important element of therapy of chronic bronchitis is the use of mucolyts. These drugs (ambroxol, bromgexin, acetylcysteine) dilute the wet, improving it expectoration. So it is achieved an increase in the useful lumen of bronchi and improving breathing functions.

Finally, with severe shortness and signs of respiratory failure, brief courses of corticosteroid hormones are prescribed. Prednisolone reduces inflammation intensity and reduces body allergization.

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