You have a severe headache, dizziness,tingling in the heart, nausea and chills. It is possible, it is a hypertensive crisis - a condition associated with a more or less sharp increase in blood pressure is accompanied by a complex of symptoms with the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Doctors also called crisis "autonomic storm" as the main cause of pain - in the increase of pressure and rough answer to this is the autonomic nervous system.
But the doctor urgently raise concernsfamily, made two or three injections, put the tablet under the tongue, and in half an hour "storm" began to subside. Gone headache and nausea, chills stopped. Weary eyes closed, you fell asleep. After a day or two in the memory of this episode left a memory, and you're back in the ranks: in the workplace or in the kitchen at the stove. And your blood pressure? On this issue, many patients can not answer, because it does not lead him any observations. "What for? I feel normal, "- that's the typical response.
This is totally unacceptable error. I often had to observe patients with essential hypertension (up to 190/110 or more) in the absence of any subjective complaints. Especially characteristic for hypertensive patients "experienced" - those who used to live in a constantly pressurized. Symptoms of hypertension (including headache) appear, usually only for hypertensive crisis, that is, "storm", which lasts several hours (sometimes days). Figuratively speaking, hypertensive crisis - tip of the iceberg, which is clearly visible and that, in general, it is easy to handle, while its underwater part - day increased numbers of blood pressure - goes unnoticed and is fraught with the dangers of mass.
It follows that, if you have the first time in his lifehad a hypertensive crisis or hypertension was detected at "random" survey (ie, pressure greater than 130/85 mm. Hg. Art.), start every day at least to measure the blood pressure during the month. The measurement results are accurately recorded and a month later discuss your observations with your doctor.
Unfortunately, if high blood pressure runsasymptomatic, and people accustomed to high blood pressure, he still resides in the belief that the treatment is not required. Hypertensive "experienced" almost unerringly, without any instrument, determine when they jumped up pressure. This is not surprising: if you are sick for years and you suddenly appear heaviness in the head and begins chills, not difficult to understand that the pressure has risen. And then you take action - for yourself, on my own. But what you feel the symptoms of a hypertensive crisis may have only an episode in the background constantly elevated blood pressure. Do you remember that hypertension - one of the major risk factors for myocardial infarction, stroke, aortic lesions and vascular lesions of the kidney? And the longer you live with hypertension, the higher the pressure of numbers (even in the absence of other symptoms), the greater the risk? Now that you have caught this disease, being treated as it should: under the supervision of a physician. The most common treatment of hypertension (even if in a reduced form) - a lifelong task. Only if within six months with daily measurement of pressure, it is normal, it is possible to consider a gradual reduction in dose, and later think about giving up one or all components of the drug therapy.
This is also a very common mistake - thatage limit of normal blood pressure rises. Still widely varied "formula for calculating" normal pressure, depending on age. One of these "formulas" reads as follows: after 60 years, the level of the normal systolic blood pressure increased by 10 mm. Hg. Art. every five years of life. That is, if a person is 65 years of age, normal systolic (top) pressure is 150 mm for him. Hg. Art for 70 years -. 160 mm. Hg. Art. etc. But let me, if you believe this formula, in the 100-year longevity systolic pressure should be equal to 200 mm. Hg. Art. Somehow it does not fit with the real practice.
Experience shows that the older personreally difficult to achieve full and persistent blood pressure normalization. What is the reason? On the one hand - with age increases the severity of hypertension and the number of comorbidities. On the other - and this is a purely subjective factor - the elderly person a lot more difficult to persuade to be treated on a regular basis (especially if well-worn hypertensive living with high blood pressure decades). But that is no reason for abandoning the treatment. Blood pressure in elderly patients often can and should be normalized. This should, however, gradually and only under strict medical supervision (often in the hospital).
Once again: the upper limit of normal blood pressure is 130/85 mm digits. Hg. Art. - At any age and at any point of the globe. Above this limit - the red zone of risk of heart attack and stroke disease. The higher the pressure of numbers, the more intense and threatening becomes red shade. Let's try to go to this seldom mined space.
Another typical situation. At the doctor's middle-aged man, deputy director of the plant. His work - is the eternal mission, impartial communication from "subcontractors" and irregular working hours. "What to do! Career. And besides - it is necessary to feed the family, "the last six months he has often a headache, and when random measurements of pressure figures range from 140/90 to 170/105 mm!. Hg. Art. This man came to the doctor with the old as the world asking: "You tell me what to take - I'll buy medicine. I heard today there is a very strong medication for high blood pressure ... ". Yes it is. Synthesized a lot of drugs, which quickly and effectively lower blood pressure and are suitable for reception (only once a day, and, as stated in the summary, - "full control of hypertension"). But, firstly, the disease does not grow out of the blue, and, secondly, every medication has side effects. Drugs used for hypertension, no influence on the cause of the disease, and separate mechanisms for pressurization. And only when the patient survey may reveal the concrete circumstances of his life, and who contributed to the development of hypertension.
We list briefly the main factors of increasepressure: obesity, chronic alcohol abuse, age, smoking, reduced level of physical activity (physical inactivity), increased use of salt (5 g / day), xponicheskie nerve overload and heredity (high blood pressure in the immediate family). Of course, argue with age and heredity - it is useless, but with other circumstances worth fighting.
Achieve normalization of body weight: move more, limit the consumption of fatty foods and foods containing glucose. Remember that your food - cereals, vegetables, fruits, vegetable oils. Maybe it's time to seek and a dietitian. (By the way, exercise and diet are not the only way to combat hypertension, but also means, retarding the development of atherosclerosis. This in turn reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney failure, leg artery disease.)
Eliminate or at least limit your alcohol intake(500 ml of beer or wine dry 250 ml, 50 ml or spirits 3 times a week). Fully and unconditionally give up smoking. Limit consumption of salt (no more than 4-5 grams per day; 5 g = 1 teaspoon of "topless").
Move more, even if you have a body massnormal. You need regular physical exercise (at least - 30-40 minutes of continuous load 3 times a week), but lifting weights or puds pumping muscles at the gym excluded. We need dynamic exercise: brisk walking, jogging, recreational swimming, cycling and skiing in the summer - in the winter. Before you choose the one or the other type and load condition, talk to your doctor. And again, no grueling tests "endurance."
You can also try to master the technique of anger management and relaxation.
Imagine this situation: diagnosis of hypertension delivered. The patient explained the importance of lifestyle changes, better appointed, the effectiveness of modern medicine. But the visit to the doctor does not last more than an hour, and then ... Then the patient is left to itself. Having a pressure drop in a month or two, he ceases to control blood pressure, take medication regularly and generally abide by the rules of a healthy lifestyle, "Why? I feel pretty well. The doctor prescribed me different drugs and I drink them ... sometimes. " As a result, everything is back to square one: well-being, however, some time is good, but the pressure (and with it the cardiovascular risk) rises again.
In fact, this error is similar to the first two: "Sick only if it hurts" and "will be treated only if symptoms are present." The lack of strict and regular monitoring of treatment - is another very common and distressing as the reason for its ineffectiveness. To get out of this vicious vicious circle, we must clearly, once and for all learn a few simple truths.
Recall again that in normal bloodthe pressure should not exceed 130/85 mm. Hg. Art. If you belong to a group of high cardiovascular risk, the norm should be for you the pressure is below 120/80 mm. Hg. Art. Such figures of blood pressure are ideal for diabetics and for those who have previously diagnosed coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, or behind - cerebral stroke. In any case, before you start treatment, check with your doctor to any numbers you need to strive for. If during the treatment you will notice that hypertension is still out of control, not delay, consult a doctor. You may need correction of treatment.
It is sad, but every tenth patienttreatment fails to reach target blood pressure (especially the elderly). This is called resistant hypertension. If you have resistant hypertension, consider (of course, along with the doctor) all the possible reasons for this resistance. In the majority of cases, they can be found and effectively eliminated.