Diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on the use of the Mantu sample, which is a response of the body in response to tuberculin. In the treatment of tuberculosis uses an integrated approach using antibacterial therapy, sanatorium treatment and proper nutrition.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in childhood
The earlier tuberculosis is detected, the easier it is to treat it and the easier it is to prevent further its development. How to find out if the child is infected with tuberculosis, if most children have infectious infectious? Scientists have opened a very simple means for the early recognition of tuberculosis infection. They offered to use for this special drug - tuberculin. Tuberculin is a hood from killed tuberculosis sticks. Studies have shown that the body infected with tuberculosis is very sensitive to Tuberculina. With the introduction of a small amount of tuberculin into a human skin, infected with tuberculosis, he has an introduction in place after day or two redness and small swelling (inflammation). If you introduce tuberculin into the skin even in large doses, no inflammation is formed in the skin. That is why to recognize the infection of tuberculosis began to use the so-called tuberculin tests.
Samples these are completely harmless. Manta test - is carried out like this: on the forearm nurse makes an intradermal injection and introduces a solution. As a result, the so-called is formed «Butt». Within two days after this, the child shows a doctor who determines which reaction turned out to be injected.
This sample makes all children and adolescents in children's consultations, clinics, dispensaries, nursery, kindergartens and schools. If using tuberculin samples it is established that the child is not infected with tuberculosis, then from time to time these samples must be repeated, so as not to miss the moment of infection. Especially often (no less often 3-4 times a year) We must repeat samples to children in families where there are tuberculosis patients. In such cases, mother or the surrounding persons must gently bring children into a dispensary where they will make tuberculin tests and radiological studies. Mother must fulfill all the directions of the doctor. If the mother does not carefully refer to the appointment of a doctor, does not measure the child's temperature to the specific hours specified by him, does not record it, then the doctor is much more difficult to detect the illness in a timely manner.
X-ray (fluorographs) are installed in the dispensar and clinics, with which you can examine a large number of people in a short time.
Special examinations of children in children's institutions allow you to timely identify patients with tuberculosis and send them to a treatment dispensary. Parents and the surrounding child is important to know the early signs of tuberculosis disease in order to consult a doctor in time and it is possible to start treatment before.
Sanatorium treatment of tuberculosis in children
Each child, sick tuberculosis, even in the easiest form, should be under the systematic observation of the doctor. In the treatment of a child, a patient with tuberculosis, the organization of the right regime with the most wide use of fresh air, water procedures, physical education exercises is. This contributes to hardening the body and consolidate the results of treatment.
A strong, hardened organism has good protective properties that help him get to deal with the disease. All special methods for the treatment of tuberculosis of lungs, bronchial glands, bones, joints and other organs can help the patient only if a liner treatment is carried out at the same time. Therefore, in all special sanatoriums, children and adolescents are treated with tuberculosis, the main method of treatment is a specially designed hygienic regime.
Science has been proven to successfully treat tuberculosis children in any climatic conditions. Therefore, sanatoriums for tuberculosis children are organized in all parts of the country, and thus the treatment is carried out directly in the terrain where the patient lives. However, some forms of tuberculosis in children are better treatable in conditions of a softer climate, in seaside and highlighted locations. Special children's sanatoriums are organized for such children in the resorts.
Resort treatment is useful not to all children, sick tuberculosis, so you can send sick children to the resort only by the advice of the doctor.
The main element of the sanatorium is the wide use of fresh air. It has been proven that as a result of the stay of patients with tuberculosis children in the fresh air, their temperature is rather reduced and the overall state is improved. In the air, children are better and deeper breathe, and, therefore, inhale more oxygen. Thanks to this, they improve the composition of the blood and appetite appetites.
In addition, in the sanatoriums of children, patients with tuberculosis are treated by the Sun. Especially good effect gives the Treatment of the Sun with the tuberculosis of bones, joints, lymph nodes and leather. The sun can be treated and tuberculosis of peritoneum, and currently treat and light shapes of lung tuberculosis.
However, with the tuberculosis of the lungs, unwarly sun races can cause an aggravation of the process. Therefore, the treatment of the Sun can be carried out in such children only by appointment and under the control of the doctor.
Power Mode with Tuberculosis
In a child, patient with tuberculosis, proper nutrition is essential. Much attention should be paid not only to the quantity, but also the quality of food. Many parents think that tuberculosis children should be abundantly feeding. This is not true. It is proved that overproing patients, which leads to excessive fat deposition, is not useful, but, on the contrary, harmful to the body. The patients's body worse copes with the disease. Food turns out to be useful only when it is well absorbed by the body.
Therefore, when feeding a child, a patient with tuberculosis, it is necessary to take into account its age and the general condition. The norm for a child patient with tuberculosis must exceed the usual only 20-25%. However, the increased nutrition rate is needed not every sick child. If the child is well tightened, he can not be prescribed an increased rate of nutrition, and, on the contrary, if the child is exhausted, he is prescribed enhanced. Therefore, the child's patient with tuberculosis is always needed to consult with a doctor.
Children of preschool age (4-6 years), patients with tuberculosis, on average per day it is necessary to give food containing about 2000 calories, schoolchildren (8-12 years) - 3000 calories, adolescents - about 4,000 calories.
Scientists have established that children and adolescents, patients with tuberculosis, the need for vitamins is more than in healthy children. That is why the content of vitamins in food such children should be paid to special attention. A varied foodfall that includes meat, fish, eggs, milk, dairy products, bread, different cereals and especially fresh vegetables and fruits, ensures the need of children patients with tuberculosis, in the most important components of food, including vitamins.
Children, patients with tuberculosis, should receive fish oil all year round. With some forms of tuberculosis, for example, with tuberculous eye disease and crofulosis, fish oil plays a particularly important role.
With some forms of tuberculosis in children, in addition to the hygiene mode, other treatment methods have to be applied. Thus, the tuberculosis of bones and joints in children is treated in special sanatoriums or home setting, creating for a long time, peace affected by the authority. To ensure the late position of the patient, use various devices (gypsum cribs, tires), and in some cases an extract is used.
In the treatment of some forms of tuberculosis of the lungs of the most favorable results, it is possible to achieve in the case when affected for a long time provide peace. Such peace is created by squeezing the light air, which is blown into the cavity surrounding the lung (in the cavity of the pleural). This treatment method is called artificial pneumothorax.
Medical treatment of tuberculosis
Parents must remember that if the doctor insists on drug treatment, then the faster this treatment will be started, the more favorable the result will be. For the treatment of some forms of tuberculosis in children recently, new drugs are successfully used. The main preparations of the treatment of tuberculosis are isoniazide, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin. Today, special antibacterial drug reception schemes have been developed. The choice of a particular scheme depends on the shape of the tuberculosis and the state of the child, the treatment is prescribed only the attending physician.