The ability to measure blood pressure (BP)for the first time it appeared only in 1905, when Dr. N.S.Korotkov invented a sound method for measuring blood pressure, which brought him worldwide fame. Since then, sphygmomanometers (blood pressure) have become for physicians no less necessary and commonplace than thermometers.
By the way last fall "distantrelatives "Korotkov devices: for mercury sphygmomanometers scale first inherited it from thermometers. Over time, replacing cumbersome mercury sphygmomanometers to smaller devices without mercury - first membrane, and then the electronic semi-automatic and automatic machines. But all blood pressure monitors - from the simplest to the most complex operating principle is the same.
cuff pump air pinched vesselsstopping the movement of blood through them. Then it slowly "descend". At that moment, when the blood pressure in the brachial artery slightly exceeds the pressure in the cuff, the first blood portion breaks through the barrier and hit the wall of the artery below the "crowded" places, making a distinctive sound (so-called tone Korotkov), which can be heard using the stethoscope. However, those who often have to measure the pressure themselves, sometimes without stethoscope - on their own feelings - accurately determine the breakthrough pulse wave by clamping the vessel on her arm. The pressure in the cuff is equal to the systolic time.
As air is released therefrom,large portions of all the blood will start to overcome the "dam". Eventually cuff stops pinch brachial artery even during diastole. Then the blood will stream back on it a continuous flow, and Korotkoff sounds disappear. This evidence on the scale of the tonometer will match the diastolic pressure.
That is the theory, but how to achieve results in practice?
1. Sit on a chair to the right of the table. Roll up the right sleeve higher. Clothes should not squeeze his hand.
2. Ask someone from the family to put the cuff on your shoulder and fix it so tightly that only one finger held between it and your skin.
3. Relax your muscles, straighten your arm and put it onpalm table top. Slip the elbow fist of his left hand or a small cushion, to a membrane stethoscope as close as possible to the maximum to straighten the elbow.
4. Let your assistant releasably connect the tube manometer to the cuff and check the position of the arrow: it should be at zero scale.
5. Ask your assistant to find the pulse of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa and put in place the membrane is a stethoscope.
6. It should now close the valve on pear andpump air into the cuff, while checking the pulse at the wrist, and checking the pressure gauge values. Note the number after which the pulse at the wrist disappears. When the pressure gauge 30 mm Hg exceeds this level, the task is completed - to inflate the cuff no longer need.
7. Your assistant should open the valve and slowly- At a speed of approximately 20 mm Hg a second release air from the cuff. Hearing the first rhythmic tones of Korotkov, let celebrate the systolic and the sudden weakening of tones - up to disappearance - the value of diastolic pressure, rounding digit up to 5 or 0.
8. Bleed air from the cuff to the end, but with the shoulderyet do not remove. Wait 2-3 minutes and measure the pressure again, and then do the same again. Smallest result accept as true indicators.
Modern electronic blood pressure measuring blood pressure "self", which is necessary to impose the cuff on the finger, wrist or shoulder, but the accuracy of the first is not always high.
Normal is considered to be blood pressure at age 17-20 years 100-120 systolic and diastolic 70-80 mm Hg in those 21 and older - not above 140 systolic and diastolic - not higher than 90 mmHg