The concept of secondary thrombocytosis
Secondary thrombocytosis - condition of the body, withwherein the increase in blood platelet count is due to chronic disease. Causes of secondary thrombocytosis are plentiful. The platelet count is not decisive for the diagnosis, but secondary causes thrombocytosis causes usually mild except in special situations, such as severe infections, in which the platelet count can reach 1000 g / l.
Infectious causes of increasing levels of platelets in the blood
Infection - the first cause of thrombocytosis. Thus often it is a bacterial infection, in which the first row is detected meningitis, but also for viral infections, parasitic and fungal. The disease usually has a bright symptoms other blood parameters changed marked leukocytosis (increased white blood cell count) and lymphocytosis (increased lymphocyte levels), which indicate the inflammatory process in the body, and eosinophilia (increased levels of eosinophils) in the case of parasitic infection. Simple biological research, such as the determination of C-reactive protein, will also help determine the cause of the disease and to direct towards the diagnosis of infection.
Infectious causes of thrombocytosis:
- bacterial infections - meningitis, pneumonia
- viral infections - meningo-encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis
- parasitic infections - toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, pneumocystis
- fungal infection - candidiasis, aspergillosis
Hematologic causes of thrombocytosis
First hematological cause thrombocytosisIt is the lack of iron. The mechanism of development of thrombocytosis with iron deficiency has not yet been studied. However, the determination of ferritin (a basic iron level determination tests) serum required.
All the reasons for the increase in the production of plateletsred bone marrow can give rise to an increase in the number of platelets and on the phenomenon of engagement. This occurs in hemolytic anemia, acute bleeding as well as after chemotherapy.
Splenectomy (removal of the spleen) is alsoReactive thrombocytosis. In the physiological state of a third of platelets stored in the spleen. Trosbotsitov increasing mechanism in this case is probably is "artificial" increase in the number of platelets in reducing blood volume weight distribution. It also occurs in the case of asplenia (congenital absence of the spleen) as platelet mass is normal and is not stored in the spleen; the same happens in the case of functional asplenia in children with sickle-cell anemia (spleen which atrophied over the years).
Traumatic and surgical causes of thrombocytosis
Post-traumatic stress, a recent surgeryintervention, as well as state associated with significant tissue damage (pancreatitis, enterocolitis, or tissue necrosis) may cause an increase in the number of platelets.
Inflammatory diseases as the cause of thrombocytosis
All inflammatory diseases tend to producean increase in platelet count. Most often, this mechanism is associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory IL, which causes increased synthesis of thrombopoietin - a hormone that regulates the maturation process, and outputs the division in blood platelets.
Inflammatory causes of thrombocytosis:
- juvenile chronic arthritis
- ankylosing spondylitis
- chronic inflammatory enteropathy
- chronic hepatitis
- Kavasaki disease
- rheumatoid purpura
Neoplastic diseases as the cause of thrombocytosis
All cancers are likely to causean increase in platelet count. The main ones are hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma and lymphoma (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin's). The survey, a simple chest radiography ultrasound of the abdominal cavity is oriented in the direction of diagnosis.
Medication causes of thrombocytosis
Corticosteroids (also included here and inhalation)and sympathomimetics (such as epinephrine or adrenaline) may be a source of thrombocytosis. Also found some antimitotics, such as vincristine or vinblastine, which can cause thrombocytosis after chemotherapy.