Sinusitis. Types of sinusitis

Content

  • What are sinuses?
  • What are the symptoms of sinusitis
  • Causes of acute sinusitis
  • Causes of chronic sinusitis


  • Sinusitis - is infectious and inflammatory process,
    localized in the sinuses or paranasal sinuses. Doctors distinguish between two
    the type of the disease: acute sinusitis (characterized by hyperemia
    serous, purulent and then lasts generally 2-3 weeks) and
    chronic sinusitis (usually occurs as a result of repeatedly
    repetitive and poorly healed acute sinusitis).



    What are sinuses?

    The sinuses - four pairs of air cavities, which are located inside the head,
    around the nose. Yet they are called paranasal cavity or paranasal
    sinus. Types of sines:

    • sinusitis - inflammation of the mucosa of the maxillary (maxillary) sinuses;
    • sinusitis - inflammation of the frontal sinus;
    • ethmoiditis - inflammation of the ethmoidal labyrinth;
    • sphenoiditis - inflammation of the sphenoid sinus.

    Each
    sinus opens into the nasal cavity to the free passage of air and
    mucus, so any infection, immune or allergic reaction to
    nasal cavity and sinuses also captures. When air is inflammation in the sinus
    along with pus or other discharge, it puts pressure on the wall
    sine and causes pain. Also, if the inflamed sinus membrane
    prevents air from entering inside the cavity in a vacuum,
    causing painful effect.



    What are the symptoms of sinusitis

    Location of pain depends on which of the sinuses by inflammation covered. Characteristic symptoms of sinusitis include:

    • Sinusitis. Types of sinusitisheadache, particularly severe in the morning;
    • mucous or purulent discharge from the nose;
    • pain in the upper jaw, toothache, pain with pressure on the cheek at an inflammation of maxillary sinus (sinusitis);
    • inflammation
      ethmoidal sinuses (ethmoiditis) causes swelling and soft tissue swelling
      around the eyes, eyelids, pain between the eyes. nose wings are
      sensitive to the slightest touch, there is a partial loss
      smell and nasal congestion;
    • in inflammation of the frontal sinuses
      (Front), the leading symptoms are severe headaches,
      mainly in the forehead and a feeling of heaviness in the affected projection
      sinus;
    • sinus infection wedge (sphenoiditis) found
      relatively rare and occur ear pain, pain in the neck,
      pain "at the top" of the head.

    Other symptoms of sinusitis are similar
    with those for colds, namely increased
    fever, weakness, fatigue, night cough, nasal congestion and
    et al. The penetration of the mucous, serous or purulent discharge from the sinuses
    throat can cause its inflammation. Cases when sinusitis
    became cause brain infections, especially in sickly
    children.



    Causes of acute sinusitis

    Most
    common cause of causing acute sinusitis is
    respiratory viral infection or, simply put, the common cold.
    Viruses can penetrate into the sinuses, causing their inflammation. For example,
    in contact with viruses or bacteria in the nasal cavity of the body responsible
    immediate immune response, and increased mucus hyperproduction
    the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the nose. All this leads to
    narrowing of the lumen of the nasal passages and shortness of breath. When
    inflammation captures sinus mucosa is
    it also leads to swelling and difficulty of the air outlet and mucous
    discharge from the sinus cavity. Slow or complicated outflow of mucus
    It creates additional conditions for bacteria.

    Such
    bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae may
    normally located in the upper respiratory tract without causing
    inflammatory reactions. However, in the case where the body's defenses
    weakened or mucus from the sinus outflow difficult infectious colds
    disease, these bacteria begin to proliferate, causing
    acute sinusitis.

    Sometimes sinus inflammation causes fungal
    infection. It occurs when the immune system
    weakened and often occurs on allergic type.

    Chronic
    inflammation of the nasal sinuses, vasomotor rhinitis, inhalation of cold
    and even some air deodorants can also lead to
    sinusitis development.



    Causes of chronic sinusitis

    Allergic
    reactions, asthma, immunodeficiency states - most
    common causes of chronic sinusitis. When an allergy to dust, pollen
    plants or mold, there vasomotor rhinitis which is
    trigger in the development of chronic sinusitis. studies
    conducted in the United States showed that 80% of patients with allergic
    rhinitis and 75% of patients with asthma and also suffer from
    sinusitis.

    Some people develop chronic sinusitis in
    greatly contribute to the cold, damp climate and polluted
    Environment.

    As in the case of acute sinusitis, in
    the development of chronic inflammation play an important role
    immunodeficiency (AIDS, cystic fibrosis), and nasal polyps.

    Sinusitis sometimes arise as adverse reaction to some drugs, such as NSAIDs.

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