From the history...
The history of breast reduction surgery began to reduce male
breasts, which reminded her feminine copy in 1846, ie, with treatment
It is gynecomastia. The term "gynecomastia" was introduced by Galen in the second
century AD Galen identified gynecomastia as an unnatural
accumulation of fat in the breast area in men.
Currently, gynecomastia is called breast augmentation tissue in
men. Gynecomastia can be true when breast augmentation
It is due to the increase in the actual breast tissue or
false, when the breast is increased due to fat. most often
found mixed version - when the breast is increased by both the
gland, and subcutaneous fat.
In most cases, the cause of gynecomastia is increased
production of estrogens (female sex hormones) and a decrease in the level of
androgens (male sex hormones).
Gynecomastia in adolescence can occur during sex
maturation due to hormonal imbalance and often spontaneously passes in
within 3 years after the first symptoms. In adults, gynecomastia can
be associated with age-related changes or a decrease in testicular function,
bringing the number of subcutaneous fat increases
and increasing the ratio of estrogen / androgen. True gynecomastia
almost always associated with androgen deficiency and excess
estrogens. In some cases, the causes of gynecomastia can be
medicines, tumors, chromosomal abnormalities, endocrine
diseases and dob factors.
Gynecomastia causes discomfort, leads to emotional experiences and violation of social adaptation.
- Gynecomastia I degree. Small breast enlargement with no excess skin.
- Gynecomastia II degree. Average breast augmentation, without excess skin.
- Gynecomastia III degree. The average increase in breast, with excess skin.
- Gynecomastia grade IV. Expressed breast augmentation with excess skin.
In the presence of gynecomastia, the patient must consult
endocrinologist may be tested for hormones and undergo
ultrasound examination of the breast. During the consultation on the
gynecomastia patient should receive objective information about what
It can be expected by the operation. During the consultation for gynecomastia
the surgeon usually examines the state of the tissues by analyzing what kind of volume share
of glandular tissue, and which - the fat. When the surgery for
gynecomastia, these two types of fabrics sometimes require different approaches. So
patients with false gynecomastia for optimal results
It is usually sufficient to perform liposuction breast. Patients with the true
gynecomastia tissue must be removed through a small breast
Before the surgery for gynecomastia appropriate to take
vitamins, fully fed, eating a sufficient amount
meat, fruit and vegetables. Unfavorable factor for healing after
surgery for gynecomastia is smoking. T.O, at least
Two weeks before surgery for gynecomastia is recommended for smokers
do quit smoking.
Before surgery to remove gynecomastia should stop
receiving drugs that reduce blood clotting, such as
acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) - a standard ingredient
painkillers. Avoid taking these drugs
14 days prior to and during the week after surgery gynecomastia.
After surgery to remove gynecomastia necessary for at
at least three weeks to wear a special compression garment that
tight fit and pulls the operated area. Usually pick up him and
can be purchased in the clinic.
Since the operation to remove gynecomastia is performed under general anesthesia
Patient vital that in the stomach was no food or fluid to
that to-day operations, it is desirable not to eat anything or drink.
On the day of surgery for gynecomastia, home, prior to entering the
clinic, it is desirable to wash, using antibacterial soap.
On admission to the hospital the day of surgery to remove gynecomastia,
measured and photographed breast, the surgeon then applies it
Required pattern marker is removed and the patient in the operating room.
During the operation,
The operation to remove gynecomastia is usually performed under general
anesthesia and lasts for 1-1.5 hours. Operational field sterilized with alcohol and
covered with sterile surgical linen. Then the surgeon makes one
possible cuts, namely the one that they have agreed with the patient
There are several different methods of breast reduction at
gynecomastia. In some of them it is sufficient that only
Liposuction, which is performed through small pinholes (2-3 mm) and
some - necessary to reduce excess skin and moving the nipple
up, and therefore, it is hardly noticeable scar around the nipple.
In one breast reduction techniques used for gynecomastia
runs a small incision under the nipple - on the border of the pigmented
of the areola and breast skin, the so-called paraareolyarny cut.
Through this incision using special tools as the fabric is removed
most breast and breast adipose tissue. After the cut
sutured. Sometimes install the drain tube to remove blood,
which may slightly leak from the incision. The method of suturing incisions
varies, but usually thread stitches applied, which itself dissolves
in body. This is only a scar under the areola. lack of
horizontal scar under the breast or of the vertical scar on the side
breast surface after surgery for gynecomastia is
great advantage of this method of breast reduction surgery for gynecomastia.
Once the incisions are closed, they bandage, clothes and
on the patient's special compression garment.
After surgery for gynecomastia surgery area for
hours will be sensitive and painful. However, after the pain
breast reduction surgery for gynecomastia is usually weak. Many
patients after the removal of gynecomastia cost light analgesics,
and usually go home the next day.
The operated area may swell, but the swelling is usually not severe,
and it hurts and pulls only under certain movements. The first days after
surgery for gynecomastia should not raise his hands high above
head because it causes excessive tension in the seams. Stitches after
operation to remove gynecomastia typically not removed, and they
resolve. After breast reduction surgery for gynecomastia patients
recommended to wear supportive compression garment day and night
first three weeks. Within three weeks after surgery for
gynecomastia should avoid exercise and physical activity, and then
gradually resume them.
About result of breast reduction surgery for gynecomastia can be seen after about six months after surgery.
The risk of complications during the healing after surgery for
gynecomastia greater decreases really big in size
breast, especially in the elderly and obese patients, especially if they
smoking. The worst of these complications - lack of blood supply to the
possible necrosis of the nipple. When you delete a large number of glandular
breast tissue decreases with gynecomastia and nipple sensitivity
the surrounding skin may be reduced. Many patients tell of
reducing the sensitivity of the nipple after surgery for gynecomastia,
but it rarely bothers.
After surgery for gynecomastia breast may be slightly
asymmetric. Small deviations in size and shape after surgery
gynecomastia should be considered as normal, but large
deviations should not be. Planning, measuring and markup before
Breast reduction for gynecomastia - that's the most important steps to achieve
more symmetric, natural-looking result.