Cytomegalovirus and pregnancy

Content

  • Cytomegalovirus in pregnancy
  • Child with cytomegaly
  • How does cytomegalovirus infection
  • Diagnosis and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection


  • cytomegalovirus infection - A disease caused by a virus of the herpes family. Catch it, you will not get rid of it. However it is possible to reduce the number of exacerbations of infection in the body.

    The main source of cytomegalovirus infectionHe is a sick man, who at the moment is the exacerbation of the process. cytomegalovirus same transmission path as that of the herpes virus (they belong to the same family), ie .:

    • airborne,
    • sexual,
    • contact,
    • intrauterine (trasnplatsentarny).



    Cytomegalovirus in pregnancy

    Cytomegalovirus and pregnancyThe danger of the virus to the body of a pregnant, especially for the fetus, is keen for cytomegalovirus infection, ie, primary infection during pregnancy.

    Infection by the human patient with acute infectioncytomegalovirus - for pregnant women is the worst option, because due to the lack of antibodies in the blood, unimpaired virus fairly easily it penetrates through the placenta to the fetus damaging influences (infection of the fetus occurs in 40-50% of cases)

    Exacerbation of latent virus infection underthe influence of the factors that weaken the immune system (eg, presence of concomitant diseases, administration of drugs suppress the immune system), it is the least dangerous situation. As to the fight against the virus enter existing antibodies (IgG, which were always with a hidden virus infection), the virus becomes impaired, which reduces the degree of penetration of the placenta and the aggressive effects on the fetus (fetal infection occurs only in 1-2% of cases).

    There is a definite relationship between thethe degree of adverse effects of the virus on the fetus, and pregnancy. For example, during infection of the fetus in early pregnancy, there is a greater likelihood of miscarriage or abnormalities of the child.

    When infected at a later date, fetal malformations are not observed, but quite often an excessive amount of amniotic fluid during pregnancy, premature birth are marked (these are the families who
    occur between 28 and 37 weeks of pregnancy
    ) And the so-called "innate salivary gland disease," the newborn.



    Child with cytomegaly

    For a child with a congenital characteristic cytomegalythe presence of jaundice (orange skin tone), enlarged liver, spleen, decreased hemoglobin (anemia) and other changes in blood test, also marked, severe damage to the central nervous system, damage to the eyes and ears.

    Detection of IgG from a child in the first trimesterafter giving birth, is not considered a sign of congenital cytomegalovirus, if his mother has a hidden place of virus, because these antibodies he got from his mother at birth and three months after they had gone on their own. Detection is the child IgM, serves as evidence of the acute phase of CMV infection.



    How does cytomegalovirus infection

    Upon infection, cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy increases the body temperature, chills, weakness noted,
    headache, muscle pain, enlargement of the spleen occurs, general malaise, which can be taken for any respiratory infection (ARI).



    Diagnosis and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection

    After contact with the pathogen in the body,the body immediately begins to produce antibodies (immunoglobulins) for cytomegalovirus, which in most cases does not cause acute infection process and only leads to latent (asymptomatic) of virus, which for a long time can does not manifest itself.

    Only a blood test for fetal infectionswill detect antibodies to cytomegalovirus, ie celebrate carriage / infection of the virus in the past (immunoglobulin G, abbreviated as IgG). Primary infection and acute phase of the disease is diagnosed by the presence of IgM.

    It is important to plan pregnancy and before to conceive a child, go through all the necessary tests: blood and examine the contents of the blood smear,
    pass on the analysis of saliva and urine (during pregnancy - amniotic
    water). You can also go through the mucosa cytology
    the vagina and endocervix. To make sure the best
    immunodeficiency make analysis, polymerase chain reaction
    (A study that reveals
    CMV infection in every cell of the body).

    If a pregnant woman find
    positive results of tests for cytomegalovirus infection, the doctor
    sends it to a more thorough examination, which includes
    Ultrasound, cordocentesis, amniocentesis (it is especially useful to those women whose
    past pregnancies ended in miscarriage or the birth of patient
    Child).

    Ultrasonography (US)- The study of organs and tissue by using ultrasonic waves. cordocentesis - Is one way to prenatal (intrauterine) diagnostics of fetal well-being. When performed cordocentesis umbilical cord puncture fetal blood collection. Amniocentesis - The study of amniotic (amniotic) fluid taken with a fine needle through a microscopic incision in the abdomen expectant mother.

    In addition to planning pregnancy to the birth of the child should be
    ready: time to treat the disease and live a healthy lifestyle.

    Prevention of CMV infection is reduced to personal hygiene measures.

    Prevention of transmission of cytomegalovirus infectionfrom mother to fetus is as follows: strict adherence to personal hygiene during pregnancy to avoid unprotected contact with potential carriers of infection. If a woman has had miscarriages, stillbirths or the birth of children with developmental disabilities is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey on the presence of a woman in her cytomegalovirus infection.

    Women carriers of cytomegalovirus infection repeated pregnancy and childbirth are permitted only in the background lack of manifestations CMV under the influence of treatment. Birth by cesarean sechegniya does not have any advantage over natural childbirth - a child's risk of infection persists.

    The most effective preventive measureCMV infection during pregnancy is the implementation of screening for this infection before pregnancy (during pregnancy planning) - in case of detection of cytomegalovirus infection need to undergo treatment, which reduces the risk of transmission to the fetus.

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