Syphilis - a chronic infectious disease,transmitted mainly through sex (although there is a risk of infection through household and blood transfusion). The latter circumstance is the basis for all donors before blood transfusion compulsorily examined (including laboratory) to eliminate syphilis.
The causative agent of the disease has a spiral shapeand stained by conventional paints that microbiologists use to better see the pathogens under a microscope. That is why it got its name - pale treponema.
Treponema capable of hitting almost alltissues and organs, leading to a chronic disease with periodic exacerbations. A sick is most contagious during the first two years of the disease (so-called early syphilis), in the same period of maximum risk of transmission from mother to child patient (congenital syphilis).
Predisposing conditions for infection isthe presence of minor damage to the skin and mucous membranes. In the absence of damage and a sufficiently strong immunity woman who had sexual intercourse with syphilis can infect the man who fell into her vagina while intercourse treponemes another partner itself while remaining healthy. Other sexually transmitted infections, leading to disruption of the integrity of the genital mucosa (herpes, chlamydia, and others.) Dramatically increase the infectiousness of the patient and the risk of infection to his partner.
While the external environment "survive" treponema badin wet biological materials (semen, vaginal secretions, and others.), while it retains the ability to infect. It is therefore possible to "get" syphilis is not only sexually but also through hygiene items and clothes the sick person.
However, as mentioned above, an overwhelmingof the cases of infection occurs when unprotected sexual intercourse. It should be remembered that the most infectious are patients with erosions or ulcers on the genitals, in the discharge of which contains a large amount of pale treponemes.
From the moment of infection to the onset of clinicalmanifestations of the disease (incubation period) is usually held 3-4 weeks. In adverse situations (children and old age, physical and mental fatigue, alcoholism, drug abuse, poor nutrition, etc.), the incubation period may be shortened. In the presence of the factors hindering the development of infection (eg, use of antibiotics, other means of self-medication), this period may be extended up to 108-190 days.
The primary manifestation of syphilis is hardchancre - ulcer or erosion at the site of penetration of Treponema pallidum. At the bottom of the oval or rounded chancre is clearly delimited tightly-elastic seal underlying tissues, which determined the characteristic chancre - hard. Hard chancre is usually painless, which is his additional feature. At the end of the first week after the appearance of a solid chancre is usually caused an increase situated near his lymph nodes. Like the chancre, they are painless at a palpation. The increase in lymph nodes is stored usually 3-5 months.
Without treatment, the chancre is healing yourself in 3-6 weeks.
For many patients, it becomes the basis forcomplacency, especially since the fresh secondary manifestations of syphilis is often not as "spectacular." Description of the various options for the clinical course of secondary and late syphilis would take up too much space - they are so diverse. Doctors call the monkey pox disease. This is not surprising: the most affecting various organs and systems, syphilis mimics other diseases, and the patient does not receive the treatment that is necessary for the wrong diagnosis.
The earlier set an accurate diagnosis, the greater the chance to reduce the harm caused by spirochetes, to a minimum, avoiding irreversible complications.
"Reassure" the disappearance of primarymanifestations of syphilis and is not necessarily caught in a screen conducted at medical examinations RW-Research expects a whole bunch of surprises - from "falling through" the nasal septum and fractures of bones destroyed by syphilis to dementia, blindness and progressive paralysis.
syphilis danger is its heavyimplications not only for the sick, but also for his children. If untreated, syphilis in pregnant women 25% of the children killed in the womb (including late miscarriage at 12-16 weeks). More 25-30% of newborns die shortly after birth, and 40% of children the symptoms of congenital syphilis are detected at a later date.
Antisyphyllitic treatment conducted inthe first 4 months of pregnancy protects baby from infection. That is why all pregnant women are required to attend laboratory diagnosis of syphilis infection in specialized laboratories (skin-venereal dispensaries and others. Institutions). If treatment is too late (intrauterine infection usually occurs in the 4-5 th month of pregnancy), the child may be born with no evidence of active syphilis, but with the defeat of the nervous system, eyes, joints, bones ...
It is now believed that syphiliscompletely cured, provided the treatment is started in the early stages of the disease. When you started therapy too late in most cases manage to stabilize the process. Treatment is appointed immediately after the confirmation of the diagnosis depends on the stage of the disease, its location, as well as individual patient tolerability of different medications.