The causes of ovarian cysts
The reasons for the development of ovarian cysts - A great variety, but the symptoms of the disease as there are none, so for all its prevalence, to identify its own impossible. For this reason, ovarian cyst usually found by chance during an ultrasound examination. Thus, it is important to regularly visit a gynecologist for a routine inspection.
Under the leadership of the hypothalamic-pituitary systemhealthy ovaries produce hormones that regulate the maturation of the follicle and corpus luteum formation. Up to 14-16 days of the menstrual cycle, a follicle grows, producing estrogen, and then there is its rupture and release of an egg (ovulation). If the follicle break occurs, follicular cyst is formed in its place. In place of the ruptured follicle forms the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. If the corpus luteum does not undergo reverse development, formed a cyst of the ovary yellow body. It can reach sizes of up to 10-12 cm.
- Mucinous cysts are filled with mucous content, often consist of multiple cameras and can reach large sizes.
- Endometrial cysts are characterized by the presence of foci endometriopodobnyh.
- Mucinous and endometrioid cyst can degenerate into malignant ovarian tumors.
- Dermoid cysts contain in the structure of the embryonic germ layers.
The cause of ovarian cysts usuallyIt is a violation of folliculogenesis, hormonal imbalance, early onset of menstruation, hypothyroidism, endocrine disorders, abortions in the past, hormonal disorders.
Ovarian Cyst widespread condition,diagnosed in 30% of women with regular and 50% with irregular menstrual cycle. After menopause the incidence of cysts is reduced to 6%.
Diagnosis of ovarian cysts
Typically, uncomplicated cysts are asymptomatic and are random finding on ultrasound.
When endometroidnyh cysts leading symptomis a constant, aching pain in the lower abdomen, worse before and during menstruation. This type of cyst is very often accompanied by adhesions in the pelvis, which leads to disruption of the bowel and bladder (constipation, frequent urination).
endometrial cysts often accompanied by infertility.
In any type of cyst may occura slight increase in body temperature, irregular menstruation (more scarce or abundant menstruation, shortening or lengthening of the menstrual cycle). For large size cysts observed asymmetric increase in the abdomen.
The cyst may be complicated by rupture, suppuration, cyst torsion legs. This gives rise to the following symptoms:
- intense, sudden pain in the lower abdomen
- fever up to 38-39S
- nausea or vomiting, not bringing relief
- rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
- tension anterior abdominal wall
To diagnose ovarian cysts following techniques:
- Gynecological examination
- US - the most common and informative method, especially when using transvaginal and transabdominal transducer
- Puncture of the posterior fornix of the vagina - to determine the presence of blood or fluid in the abdomen, is most often used in complicated cysts
- Laparoscopy - used in cases of suspected cyst rupture or torsion of the cyst legs, allowing to carry out in addition to the diagnosis and surgical intervention
- Determination of tumor marker antigens (antigen-125)
- Computed tomography - to distinguish a cyst from ovarian tumors
- The general analysis of blood and urine tests to detect blood loss, inflammation
- Pregnancy test, to rule out ectopic pregnancy.
Ovarian Cysts Treatment
In uncomplicated cysts applied monophasic and2-phase oral contraceptives. Appointed vitamins A, E, B1, B6, K, ascorbic acid. In some cases, effective use of acupuncture, homeopathic preparations.
For patients with a high body mass recommended diet therapy, physiotherapy and balneotherapy. Adipose tissue is a depot androgens that violates the metabolism of hormones.
The dynamics of the treatment is monitored using ultrasound, the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment is applied surgery.
When dermoid, endometrioid, mucinous cysts applies only surgical treatment.
In complicated ovarian cysts should be given emergency surgical care, in case of sudden acute abdominal pain is necessary to call an ambulance.
In children, adolescents and women of childbearing ageovarian resection is performed, preserving unaltered portion. In premenopausal hysterectomy is performed (hysterectomy) with appendages, or removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy). Operations can be carried out as a conventional method, and endoscopy. After the surgery is performed restorative treatment.