Everyone is familiar with such common childhood infections such as measles, rubella, chickenpox, scarlet fever. Most often, kids suffer them in kindergarten or primary school.
But there infection, in this casewill focus on viral hepatitis "A" (infectious jaundice, infective hepatitis), which occur more frequently in children and others for whom has its own idiosyncrasies.
Among the infectious diseases hepatitisIt ranks third after SARS and acute intestinal infections, which is popularly called disease of dirty hands. As a result of this disease primarily affects the liver. Most often they are ill children aged 3 to 7 years, while the kids are immune to a year, resulting from the mother.
The source of infection is the only man withclear or blurred forms of the disease, as well as virus carriers. Transmission of the virus is carried out mainly through contact-household (through utensils contaminated with faeces hands, personal hygiene items), as well as food and water. airborne transmission of infection was not confirmed.
For viral hepatitis is characterized by seasonality,periodicity. The highest percentage of cases registered in the autumn-winter period (September-January), the smallest - in the summer (July-August). In child care centers are possible epidemic outbreaks. After undergoing disease-resistant forms, lifelong immunity.
The beginning of the first manifestations of the disease is usuallypreceded by an incubation period (an average of 15 to 30 days), when there are no external manifestations of the disease, but the virus is already having its damaging effect on the body.
Then, the majority of children rises sharplythe temperature to 38-39 ° C and there are symptoms of intoxication: malaise, weakness, headache, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. There is pain in the right upper quadrant, usually blunt, but sometimes the pain may be of paroxysmal character, creating the impression of an attack of acute appendicitis and even gallstones. Toddlers become moody, irritable, lose interest in games, learning, their sleep is disturbed. Often there are and stomach disorders: flatulence, constipation, sometimes diarrhea. In 10% of patients detected light catarrhal phenomena: nasal congestion, redness of the throat, slight cough. After 1-3 days of onset of the disease the body temperature returned to normal and the symptoms of intoxication become weaker, but still retained the overall weakness, the child may be sick. During this period, the disease observed increase in liver size, sensitivity and tenderness to palpation it. Often there is a darkening of urine (the color of beer) and partial fecal discoloration (color clay). In the future, against the background of a clear improvement of the general condition and reduce the complaints of children develop jaundice that lasts for 7-14 days. Initially, yellow whites of the eyes and the sky, then the skin of the face, trunk.
Patients usually do not need jaundice administeringdrugs. The basis of treatment - radionalny motor mode, health food, cholagogue preparations, mineral water, multivitamins Verte.
Restrictions depend on the power runningbeing sick child and the severity of the disease. After discharge from the hospital is appointed sparing regimen for 2-4 weeks; for a period of 3-6 months, the children are exempt from physical education and sports are not recommended for 6-12 months.
Diet for viral hepatitis, "A" must behigh-grade, high-calorie. Appointed lean meats (beef, veal, chicken) and fish (cod, perch, saffron cod, pike and others.); useful cottage cheese, milk, yogurt. Fats are as butter and vegetable oils (corn, olive, sunflower). It is recommended to use different types of diet cereals (rice, semolina, oats, buckwheat), bread, pasta, sugar, potatoes. The daily ration is necessary to provide a sufficient amount of raw and cooked vegetables (carrots, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, green peas, zucchini), herbs, fruit, juice. Excluded from power extractives, refractory fats (lard, margarine), fatty sausages, pork, canned meat, fat bird, sharp dips, pickles, spicy cheeses, garlic, radish, radishes, chocolate, cakes, pastries, candies, hot spices ( mustard, pepper, mayonnaise), sausage, mushrooms, nuts, etc. Good to give kids loosely brewed tea with lemon, milk, honey, jam, and a decoction of rose hips, fruit and berry juices, fruit, alkaline mineral water. The above recommendations are considered to be indicative only.
A specific diet will appoint the attending physician, depending on the child's age, the severity and stage of the pathological process.
Children who recover from viral hepatitis "A", usuallydirected to the dispensary observation. In the absence of residual effects (detected clinically or laboratory research) recover from derecognised; in the presence of residual effects are observed for at least 3 months. The basis of prevention of viral hepatitis "A" is necessary to monitor the sanitary conditions of food establishments, catering, water, sewage and garbage removal. Of particular importance is the protection of food and water sources from possible contamination with faeces. Children who had contact with patients in children's institutions after the first isolation of the sick should be under close clinical observation during the quarantine period - 35 days after the last patient isolation. At the contact of children is carried out daily inspection of the skin, sclera, necessarily marked liver size, fixed color of urine and stool. To treat outbreaks of viral hepatitis "A" in child care is very important to the timely application of immunoglobulins with high content of antibodies to hepatitis "A". However, the cardinal is considered prophylactic vaccine prevention of hepatitis "A", the use of which is already possible in the near future.