Tests to evaluate the activity of the T-system of immunity
The main end product of the T-lymphocytes arecytokines, but the system for their determination is still not readily available practical laboratories. Nevertheless, evaluation of functional activity of T-cell population is of utmost importance as it can be reduced, sometimes significantly, with the normal amount of T-cells.
To test a Level 1 assessment T-cell population can be attributed definition:
- total lymphocytes
- percentage and absolute numbers of mature T-lymphocytes
To test the 2nd level to assess T-cell population include the definition of:
- production of cytokines (interleukin, interferon, tumor necrosis factor, etc.).
- proliferative response to specific antigens, often at diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
- allergic reaction by skin tests with a number of microbial antigens
Without a doubt, the definition of the production of cytokineslymphocytes and macrophages should be the main methodological procedures in the immunodiagnostics of diseases associated with impaired immune systems. Identification of cytokines in some cases, allow for more accurate diagnosis of the disease and the mechanism of immune disorders.
The use of skin tests
Special is the question of the application of skin testsin the diagnosis of T-cell immunodeficiencies. Today they are used as one test level for assessing T-cell population. This is due to two factors. First, the skin test - is a simple and at the same time informative tests to assess the functional activity of T-lymphocytes. Positive skin tests with some microbial antigens is highly likely to rule out the presence of the patient's T-cell immunodeficiency. Secondly, for the production of skin tests that include basic antigens determining T-cell immunity. This enables a strictly controlled conditions to evaluate the functional activity of the T-cell population.
Currently, there are problems associated withdetermination of cell immunodeficiencies. The fact that the cellular defects and cellular immune state is determined before, as they say to the eye. However, the life and the rapid development of science have shown that this technique is a little information to draw any conclusions on the basis of the obtained results with it can not be because they do not correspond to reality. At present, such research is carried out by means of monoclonal antibodies. This technique not only allows to characterize each cell of the immune system, but also more accurately identify any defect in them. Today the method of monoclonal antibody being developed more and more, as identified receptors functionally characterize cell. However, to assess their reaction to the eye, as is often done, we, too, is not quite correct. For this purpose, the method of flow cytometry, which allows you to objectively evaluate each cell receptor. Unfortunately, this technique is applicable only in the major centers, the thing is expensive research costs, especially high cost of the device, but it is the most accurate and informative in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency.