Listeriosis: symptoms and treatment

Content

  • What is listeriosis
  • What are the symptoms of listeriosis
  • Examination and treatment of listeriosis



  • What is listeriosis

    Listeriosis - an infectious disease characterized by predominant
    lymphoid tissue and lesions of the nervous system, the development of specific entities in the organs (mainly
    in the liver).

    Listeriosis is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations, may occur
    in two forms: acquired and congenital.

    The causative agent of listeriosis - Listeria - presented short sticks and coccobacilli.
    Bacteria are mobile, perform typical tumbling motion.

    Listeria resistant in the external environment, at moderate and low temperatures
    soil persist and even thrive in the months and years. Feed grain
    stored for up to three years, for a long time there and breed in meat and milk
    at 4-6 degrees Celsius. Boiling die within 3-5 minutes; unstable
    to the action of disinfectants.

    Listeria is widespread. The main natural reservoir - various animals and birds; the body of a sick animal pathogen is released
    urine, feces, nasal discharge, milk and amniotic fluid.
    The main ways of contracting listeriosis - contact through the skin and mucous membranes (care
    animals, cutting of carcasses), through food, through the air (when working with feed), vertical
    (Through the mother's birth canal)

    The most stricken listeriosis contingents: neonates (39-50% of all cases) and people
    elderly.



    What are the symptoms of listeriosis

    The acquired listeriosis. The incubation period - 2-4 weeks. The main clinical forms: anginal, eye-glandular, typhoid, listeriosis
    nervous system. Anginous (mononucleose-like) form of listeriosis has the following manifestations: fever, decrease
    appetite, headache, weakness, sore throat, swollen lymph
    nodes. Eye-glandular form develops through the penetration of Listeria
    conjunctiva of the eye ( "swimmers disease") and is characterized by fever, decrease, head of appetite
    pain, general weakness, puffiness and redness of the eyelids, eye narrowing of the gap, purulent
    discharge in the corner of the eye, increase in size and become painful
    The lymph nodes.

    Listeriosis: symptoms and treatmentTyphoid form of listeriosis has such symptoms as: prolonged fever, a rash of mottled
    to sinyachkovoy, sore throat and conjunctivitis are absent. Typhoid form of listeriosis usually develops in children
    immunocompromised, as well as in neonates and infants. listeria
    nervous system can take place as meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis.
    Current heavy. After this illness are possible residual effects
    in the form of mental disorders, neurodevelopmental disability, paralysis.
    The most common form of listeriosis in adults.

    Congenital listeriosis. Infection of the fetus may occur both in utero at any stage of pregnancy
    (But not before the 5 th week) and during childbirth. Therefore, infection outcomes
    may be different: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, birth of children
    with developmental disabilities - with the defeat of the fetus in the first half of pregnancy; or
    birth of a child with congenital listeriosis - during later infection.

    Congenital listeriosis - one of the most severe variants of infection
    diseases with a high risk of death. Clinical manifestations of congenital listeriosis are not specific.
    There are: high fever; violation of appetite (refusal to feed), regurgitation
    or vomiting, lethargy, confusion, changes in heart rate, cyanosis, "marbling"
    skin rash nodular (bumps), rash or spotty sinyachkovaya, defeat
    liver (jaundice), meningitis and meningoencephalitis (excitation or depression
    consciousness).



    Examination and treatment of listeriosis

    Microscopy and abjection. Materials for the study - the blood, cerebrospinal fluid,
    mucus from the throat, enlarged lymph nodes material; neonatal further - meconium, umbilical blood.

    • Bed rest, restriction of physical activity.
    • Isolation of the patient.
    • Tetracycline antibiotics for 6 0.2-0.3 g for 7-10 h
      days. When meningitis - benzylpenicillin for 75 000-100 000 IU / kg / in every
      4 hours, the drug cancel 2 weeks after normalization of body temperature, tobramycin, 2 mg / kg / every 8 hours, preparations cancel 4 weeks after
      normalization of body temperature. With eye-glandular listeriosis - erythromycin
      30 mg / kg / day orally 4 Hour, drug overturned 1 week after normalization
      body temperature.
    • Alternative formulations: cotrimoxazole 5 mg / kg Trimethoprim / in every
      6 hours, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin.

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