What is listeriosis
Listeriosis - an infectious disease characterized by predominant
lymphoid tissue and lesions of the nervous system, the development of specific entities in the organs (mainly
in the liver).
Listeriosis is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations, may occur
in two forms: acquired and congenital.
The causative agent of listeriosis - Listeria - presented short sticks and coccobacilli.
Bacteria are mobile, perform typical tumbling motion.
Listeria resistant in the external environment, at moderate and low temperatures
soil persist and even thrive in the months and years. Feed grain
stored for up to three years, for a long time there and breed in meat and milk
at 4-6 degrees Celsius. Boiling die within 3-5 minutes; unstable
to the action of disinfectants.
Listeria is widespread. The main natural reservoir - various animals and birds; the body of a sick animal pathogen is released
urine, feces, nasal discharge, milk and amniotic fluid.
The main ways of contracting listeriosis - contact through the skin and mucous membranes (care
animals, cutting of carcasses), through food, through the air (when working with feed), vertical
(Through the mother's birth canal)
The most stricken listeriosis contingents: neonates (39-50% of all cases) and people
What are the symptoms of listeriosis
The acquired listeriosis. The incubation period - 2-4 weeks. The main clinical forms: anginal, eye-glandular, typhoid, listeriosis
nervous system. Anginous (mononucleose-like) form of listeriosis has the following manifestations: fever, decrease
appetite, headache, weakness, sore throat, swollen lymph
nodes. Eye-glandular form develops through the penetration of Listeria
conjunctiva of the eye ( "swimmers disease") and is characterized by fever, decrease, head of appetite
pain, general weakness, puffiness and redness of the eyelids, eye narrowing of the gap, purulent
discharge in the corner of the eye, increase in size and become painful
The lymph nodes.
Typhoid form of listeriosis has such symptoms as: prolonged fever, a rash of mottled
to sinyachkovoy, sore throat and conjunctivitis are absent. Typhoid form of listeriosis usually develops in children
immunocompromised, as well as in neonates and infants. listeria
nervous system can take place as meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis.
Current heavy. After this illness are possible residual effects
in the form of mental disorders, neurodevelopmental disability, paralysis.
The most common form of listeriosis in adults.
Congenital listeriosis. Infection of the fetus may occur both in utero at any stage of pregnancy
(But not before the 5 th week) and during childbirth. Therefore, infection outcomes
may be different: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, birth of children
with developmental disabilities - with the defeat of the fetus in the first half of pregnancy; or
birth of a child with congenital listeriosis - during later infection.
Congenital listeriosis - one of the most severe variants of infection
diseases with a high risk of death. Clinical manifestations of congenital listeriosis are not specific.
There are: high fever; violation of appetite (refusal to feed), regurgitation
or vomiting, lethargy, confusion, changes in heart rate, cyanosis, "marbling"
skin rash nodular (bumps), rash or spotty sinyachkovaya, defeat
liver (jaundice), meningitis and meningoencephalitis (excitation or depression
Examination and treatment of listeriosis
Microscopy and abjection. Materials for the study - the blood, cerebrospinal fluid,
mucus from the throat, enlarged lymph nodes material; neonatal further - meconium, umbilical blood.
- Bed rest, restriction of physical activity.
- Isolation of the patient.
- Tetracycline antibiotics for 6 0.2-0.3 g for 7-10 h
days. When meningitis - benzylpenicillin for 75 000-100 000 IU / kg / in every
4 hours, the drug cancel 2 weeks after normalization of body temperature, tobramycin, 2 mg / kg / every 8 hours, preparations cancel 4 weeks after
normalization of body temperature. With eye-glandular listeriosis - erythromycin
30 mg / kg / day orally 4 Hour, drug overturned 1 week after normalization
- Alternative formulations: cotrimoxazole 5 mg / kg Trimethoprim / in every
6 hours, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin.