Fungal infections - a disease caused by fungi,infecting humans, animals and plants. Mycosis develops slowly, relapses (resumption of symptoms of the disease after their temporary disappearance) more often than bacterial infection, and leaves behind a long-lasting immunity (immunity of the organism). Sometimes, fungal infections are accompanied by only a slight inflammation, but often cause the formation of chronic ulcers, ulcers or a tumor-like granulomas (inflammatory tight knot). Fungal infections can even cause death. There are tools available that slow the reproduction of fungi, but there is no such that would completely destroy them.
There are systemic fungal infection that spreads to the entire body, and the ringworm that affects the skin, hair or nails.
Coccidioidomycosis (coccidioidomycosis, orCalifornian fever) is caused by thread-like yeast fungus Coccidioides immitis. The most common in southern California, but is found throughout the US southwest. Transmission of infection from person to person occurs. The fungus enters the body mainly by inhalation of dust containing its spores, but can penetrate through the skin in contact with contaminated soil. Bearers of infection are considered wild rodents (eg, rats). Coccidioidomycosis - acute respiratory tract disease that usually heals spontaneously (without treatment); however, sometimes the disease spreads rapidly acquires the entire body form, which can be fatal.
Initially asymptomatic or coccidioidomycosisIt resembles the flu. There may be fever, cough, and chest pain, followed by skin rash. If the infection got into the body through the skin, in place of its penetration formed small skin abscesses. In most cases these symptoms disappear without any treatment. Sometimes the infection penetrates into deep tissues: bones, joints, brain and meninges, which formed dense inflammatory nodules) and later turn into abscesses (abscesses) or ulcers. This increases the body temperature, decreased appetite, there is a rapid loss of weight and strength. Effective treatments for this form of the disease does not exist. Spread a few delays the drug amphotericin.
Histoplasmosis is caused by the yeastHistoplasma capsulatum, which multiplies in the manure of pigeons, bats and chickens. It occurs throughout the world, in the United States - mainly in the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Infection occurs by inhalation of dust containing contaminated manure, eating contaminated food, or through the skin. In the body of the fungus settles in some tissues and blood cells. If it affects the mouth, throat or ears, the formation of ulcers and increase the nearby lymph nodes. The disease ends spontaneously, the chances of recovery are very high.
When a progressive form of histoplasmosis fungusIt penetrates into the internal organs, resulting in increased liver and spleen, and intestine ulcers formed. Often, the infection spreads to the bone marrow; in this case, sometimes the temperature rises, the person loses weight, falls in blood content of erythrocytes and leukocytes. The progressive form of the disease often leads to a quick death. Amphotericin slows down the spread of infection.
Blastomycosis (North American blastomycosis, orGilchrist's disease) is caused by the yeast Blastomyces dermatitidis. This is a rare disease that is chronic, may occur in the form of the primary changes, limited skin or lungs, or gradually affects the entire body. The natural reservoir of the fungus, the pathogen and its method of transmission is unknown. First, on the face, neck or limbs appear small reddish nodules or pustules. Increasing in size, they are covered by a crust with small blisters on the edges; some later turn into ulcers. Damage in pulmonary blastomycosis resemble tuberculosis or lung cancer. The fungus can penetrate into the bone, liver, spleen, kidneys and central nervous system, resulting in the appearance of tumor formations there, which later turned into ulcers or abscesses. Pathological changes in the central nervous system can cause paralysis. With the spread of infection from the bones or internal organs of the lungs in which there are extensive changes often leading to death. Cutaneous blastomycosis amenable to radiation therapy and treatment with potassium iodide. Although most cases of blastomycosis can be successfully treated with antifungal antibiotics, frequent relapses (resumption of symptoms of the disease) and the likelihood of a full recovery is low.
Cryptococcosis (torulez or Europeanblastomycosis) - a chronic infectious disease caused by the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is found throughout the world and isolated from fruit juices, milk and pigeon droppings. In the human body the fungus gets through the respiratory or digestive tract. Infection nests primarily in the brain and the meninges, but can penetrate into any part of the body, causing the formation of deep ulcerated tumors and abscesses (ulcers) or destroying nerve tissue. The initial symptoms of brain damage and the meninges are headache, dizziness, and rigidity (strength) of the neck muscles. Later violated vision and coordination, develop paralysis (loss of movement or disturbance in one or more parts of the body). Progressive (developing) paralysis leading to death. If it affects the lungs is somewhat higher temperatures, there is a weak cough. From the lungs the infection spreads to the brain or meninges. The probability of recovery is small, damage to the brain and its membranes is always fatal.