The concept of pseudotuberculosis
Pseudotuberculosis - an acute infectious disease characterized by fever, general intoxication, lesion of the small intestine, liver, often Scarlatiniform rash.
Pathogens are pseudotuberculosisfamily of enteric bacteria. The properties of this bacterium resembles a plague pathogens and intestinal yersiniosis. Bacteria found in soil, water, an organism isolated from many animal species. However, the main sources of infection are rodents. Man usually is not a source of infection. Pseudotuberculosis bacteria persist well in the environment, particularly on products (up to 3 months). They die quickly when heated.
The main pathway pseudotuberculosis -food. The greatest danger is posed by winter storage products (potatoes, cabbage, carrots, etc.), Who could be infected by rodents, dairy products, edible without preliminary heat treatment, as well as in the use of its water from open reservoirs. Psevdotubrekulez occurs in all age groups but is more common in children during the first years of life.
Symptoms of the disease
Disease begins acutely, there are chills,fever, fever up to 38-38,5? C, symptoms of intoxication, symptoms of catarrh of the upper respiratory tract can be in the first days of illness. Patients worried about the headache, weakness, pain in muscles and joints. Simultaneously with the intoxication syndrome, nausea, in some patients - vomiting, abdominal pain, cramping, or that are permanent. Localization of pain - in the epigastric region, around the belly button to the right lower abdomen, sometimes in the right upper quadrant. A chair liquid, viscous, with a pungent odor. In some patients with involvement of the colon process in the stool detected an admixture of mucus, sometimes blood. Stool frequency from 2-3 up to 15 times per day. The duration of the disease from 2 to 15 days.
Among the cardinal signs of the diseaseIt applies a sign of "hood" (redness of the face and neck), "gloves" and "socks" (limited to redness of hands and feet). These symptoms appear most frequently on the 2-4 th day of illness. The duration of rashes - 1-7 days. After her disappearance, from the second week of the disease, most patients appear defurfuration skin of the trunk, face and neck and plate (leaf-shaped) - leather palms and feet.
Often the patient tongue, surrounded by the first days of illness white bloom to 5-7 th day is cleared and becomes a "raspberry", which reinforces the similarity pseudotuberculosis with scarlet fever (Scarlatiniform form).
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases
In addition to the core symptoms of the disease to confirm the diagnosis using specific methods of diagnosis - bacteriological and serological.
The main materials for bacteriologicalstudies are feces, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph node and appendix. To determine the presence of pseudotuberculosis antigens in faeces and other material using an enzyme immunoassay.
For the treatment of pseudotuberculosis applyantibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin), sulfonamides and chemotherapy. Chloramphenicol appoint 0.5 g 4 times a day for 10-14 days. If symptoms of severe intoxication is assigned an intravenous infusion of 5% glucose solution or gemodeza.
The duration of treatment depends on the formdisease. Mode in the middle bed of the disease. Sometimes indications require surgery. Patients were discharged from the hospital after a full clinical recovery and double negative bacteriological examination of faeces.
Prevention of the disease is to controlthe state of the vegetable stores, rodent control, as well as compliance with sanitary-hygienic measures on food enterprises and nutrition, respect for the rules of transportation, storage, preparation and implementation of the food, the prohibition of the use of vegetables (cabbage, carrot) without heat treatment, permanent sanitary surveillance of water supply . Vaccines, ie vaccines, pseudotuberculosis from there.